PROTEKER: Implementation of an underwater observatory at Kerguelen

JPEG - 2.7 kb Effects of global change on the marine benthos and habitats in Kerguelen Islands. Establishment of a base line for ecological and genetic monitoring, protection and conservation

In the current context of climate changes, variations of the sea level and of marine biodiversity [particularly benthic], (extinction, shifts, replacements, “exotic” and invading species) will affect the Southern Islands, particularly in coastal waters. Sites explored during past ocean cruises or by diving around Kerguelen, having given place to collections and research tasks, are revisited during cruises of « La Curieuse ». The observations and the examination of these new collections are compared with those carried out since the Seventies. All the data, old and new, are/will be captured in existing or compatible databases associated with a GIS. Certain species of which the genetic structure is known are selected for a genetic monitoring and the determination of sensitive areas. The whole will bring the scientific bases to the determination of zones to be protected (site, area and optimum distances between the protected zones) and managed.

New on the site
Jan. 2019 Online publishing of "Geology of Kerguelen Islands", in French
Sep. 2018 New on line IRI’s map of SST - Kerguelen & Crozet Islands areas
Aug. 2018 New on line Main PROTEKER output and Theses related to Kerguelen
Jun. 2018 A field guide to coastal echinoderms of Kerguelen Islands - 16th International Echinoderm Conference, Nagoya, Japan, 28/05-01/06/2018
Mar. 2018 The film about PROTEKER 3 2013-14 put on line
Feb. 2018 diaporama campaign 2017
Feb. 2018 Lien vers le film de P. Grua (1963): Premières plongées à Kerguelen/First scientific diving in Kerguelen
Jan. 2018 L’observatoire sous-marin des îles Kerguelen dans
Dec. 2017 PROTEKER contributes to Genomics insight into the past and present of Antarctic Biodiversity. A tool to assess the fate of a unique ecosystem in a changing world (GAB)
Nov. 2017 PROTEKER at the fall philately exhibition illustrations
Mar. 2017 a PROTEKER’s model species (Abatus cordatus) on the net
Jan. 2017 PROTEKER-phase1 in Rapport d’activité IPEV
presentation PROTEKER-phase1 Public Conferences in Endoume
carnet de mission 2016-07
carnet de mission 2016-06
carnet de mission 2016-05
carnet de mission 2016-04
carnet de mission 2016-03
carnet de mission 2016-02
Déc. 2016 carnet de mission 2016-01
Oct. 2016 presentation Intn. Conf. Ecological Sciences, 24-28/10/2016, Marseille, France
Mai 2016 presentation 2nd Eur. Conf. Scientific Diving, 9-11/05/2016, Kristineberg, SE
diaporama campaign 2015
online publishing of the sea temperature monitoring
diaporama campaign 2014
diaporama campaign 2013
diaporama campaign 2011-12

- France Télévisions reporting FR3 (2014) (Marie Herenstein)
PROTEKER sequence begins at 02:45

Click on the thumbail to download
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Article in "Espèces", 2016: Féral (J.-P.), Beurier (J.-P.), Marschal (C.), Marty (G.), Motreuil (S.), Poulin (E.), Roca (J.-C.), Saucède (T.). Kerguelen, un archipel sous haute surveillance. Espèces , 21 : 33-39.

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Article in "Underwater Technology", 2016: Féral (J.-P.), Saucède (T.), Poulin (E.), Marschal (C.), Marty (G.), Roca (J.-C.), Motreuil (S.), Beurier (J.-P.). PROTEKER : implementation of a submarine observatory at the Kerguelen islands (Southern Ocean). Underwater Technology 34(1) : 3-10. doi : 10.3723/ut.34.003

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Rapport d’activité de l’IPEV, 2016: Féral (J.-P.), Saucède (T.), Améziane (N.) 2016. PROTEKER phase 1: l’installation. Un observatoire sous-marin des effets du changement global sur les communautés benthiques côtières de l’Archipel des Kerguelen. Rapport d’activité, Campagne d’été 2015-2016 incluse, IPEV, Brest, pp. 28-35. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32380.13448

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Presentation of PROTEKER phase 1 (general public)

subaqua ]
Paru dans SUBAQUA, n° jan-fev 2018: Thomas Saucède & Sébastien Motreuil - L’observatoire sous marin des îles Kerguelen, 276: 30-37

[ JPEG - 3.2 kb A stamp and a postcard "PROTEKER" in the Carnet de voyage des TAAF n°8 : A la découverte de la réserve naturelle des Terres Australes Françaises first presented at the 2017 Fall philathely exhibition.

Field guide to Kerguelen Islands coastal Echinoderms

All photos are copyright ©PROTEKER

Abatus cordatus Ctenocidaris nutrix Sterechinus diadema Odontaster penicillatus Glabrasterias antarctica Ophiocantha vivipara Ophionotus hexactis Cladodactyla sinciski Pentactella laevigata

PROTEKER, IPEV program 1044 - Summer field campaigns

This IPEV program n° 1044 - PROTEKER has been launched during the austral summer 2011-2012. It was coordonated by Jean-Pierre Féral (IMBE, Marseille) and Nadia Améziane (MNHN, Paris - Concarneau). Several marine labaratories are involved in France, and also in Belgium and Chile (see partners page). This contituted the first phase of the program.
Since 2015, Thomas Saucède leads the program which is increasing the equipment of the observatory sites and developing approaches in the fields of trophic webs, connectivity and phylogeography.

The objective of PROTEKER is to check the probable impact of climate changes at sea which implicatesdata mining and revisiting already known sites. An underwater observatory is implemented to monitor representative coastal habitats. At the end, the project will produce an inventory of existing data, capture those which are still not available (gray litterature) and manage them in a georeferenced database.
The field part will permit to chose the sites to be monitored and to make qualitative(*) comparisons between the present state and how it was 10 to 50 years ago. This is possible thanks to the availability of La Curieuse in the Kerguelen waters. She can sail all around the Island (except the west coast where the conditions are always very rough) and in the Golfe du Morbihan making possible to explore a lot of coastal habitats. Three summer campaigns have been asked.
To plan these cruises and campaigns regarding the framework of the international environmental law makes it possible to produce “useful” data. The multidisciplinary missions could also help to determine bioregions and select protection criteria for research development, protection of ecosystems.
(*) Only sedimentary bottoms of the Baie du Morbihan have been studied "quantitatively". There is no quantitative record for hard substrates.

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The trawler "La Curieuse"

- The first field campaign was done around Kerguelen Island, onboard "La Curieuse" from December 12th, 2011 and January 9th, 2012. It was dedicated to exploration and choice of observation sites. Some were equiped of temperature recorders. See report (in French)
- The field cruise 2012-13 was cancelled following the damage of the "Marion Dufresne II" to Crozet where she struck a shoal.
- The second field campaign (November 30th - December 17th, 2013) made it possible to complete the installation of 7 monitored sites, north and south of Kerguelen coast and in the Bay of Morbihan. Temperature recorders were deployed as well as colonization plates. See report (in French)
- The third and last scientific cruise at sea is planned for the southern summer 2014-2015

The observations are made by means of diving (down to 30 m depth) and using a mini-ROV - right (down to 100 m depth)

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Sampling and shooting
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Mini-ROV "Observer" (Subsea Tech)

Collections are made by diving and trawling - right (100 m long hauls, 3 min at 1 kn at 50 m and 100 m depth)

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Collection of organisms
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Agassiz type trawl _ Kerguelen

The chosen sites of observation are equipped with temperature recorders - left (5 m and 15 m depth) and of plates of colonization - right (approximately 10 m depth)

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thermorecorder _ fouling


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Colonization plate

|. Ceci a constitué la première phase du programme.
Depuis 2015, Thomas Saucède dirige le programme qui accroit l’équipement des sites d’observatoires et développe des approches dans les domaines des réseaux trophiques, de la connectivité et de la phylogéographie.

Partners and participants

PROTEKER is coordonated by Thomas Saucède (Biogéosciences, Dijon) and Nadia Améziane (ISYEB, MNHN, Concarneau).
Several laboratories collaborate to this program
in France

  • Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Biogéosciences - Research unit 6282, Dijon
  • Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Écologie marine et continentale, IMBE - Research unit 7263, Marseille
  • Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, MNHN, Institut de Systématique, Evolution et Biodiversité - UMR 7205 ISYEB, Concarneau
  • Centre de droit maritime et océanique - EA 1165, Nantes
  • Observatoire Océanologique de Banyuls-sur-Mer - UMS 2348
  • Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe
  • IFREMER, Laboratoire Environnement profond, Brest
  • Réserve Naturelle des Terres Australes Françaises, TAAF, Saint Pierre, La Réunion

and abroad

  • Chile:
    • Universidad de Chile, Laboratorio de Ecología Molecular (LEM), Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Santiago.
    • Universidad Austral de Chile (UACH), Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Limnológicas, Valdivia.
    • Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas Concepción.
    • Universidad de Magallanes, Laboratorio de Ecosistemas Marinos Antárticos y Subantárticos (LEMAS), Instituto de la Patagonia, Punta Arenas.
  • Belgium:
    • Université Libre de Bruxelles, Marine Biology Lab, BIOMAR, Faculté des Sciences, Bruxelles


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N. Améziane J.-P. Beurier A. Chenuil-Maurel B. David
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R. David A. Diaz C. De Ridder P. Dubois
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M. Eléaume S. Fabri-Ruiz J.-P. Féral (PI 2011-14) J. Fournier
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K. Gérard C. Gonzalez-Wevar C. Guillaumot C. Marschal
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G. Marty L. Michel S. Motreuil P.-Y. Pascal
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E. Poulin J.-C. Roca C. Rocher T. Saucède (PI 2015-to date)
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M. Selva

Observation sites

Height sites have been chosen around Kerguelen Island:
- two on the north coast ( Choiseul and Baleiniers sectors): Baie de l’Oiseau (Port Christmas) and Îlot des Trois Bergers.
- two on the south coast (Audierne sector): Fjord des Portes Noires and Îles du Prince de Monaco
- two at the bottom of the Baie du Morbihan: Île Haute and Île Longue
- two in the surroundings of the Passe Royale: Île Suhm and Ilot Channer.

Tide schedule (Port-aux-Français)


Baie de l’Oiseau - Port Christmas

48°40’55"S 69°01’58"E
-48.68194 69.03277
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Îlôt des Trois Bergers

49°17’24"S 69°42’41"E
-49.29000 69.71138
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Fjord des Portes Noires Iles du Prince de Monaco
49°29’39"S 69°08’58"E 49°36’00"S 69°14’23"E
-49.49416 69.14944 -49.60000 69.23972
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Île Haute Île Longue
49°23’15"S 69°56’29"E 49°32’19"S 69°53’03"E
-49.38750 69.94138 -49.53861 69.88416

Ile Haute
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Ile Longue
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Passe Royale

Île Suhm Ilot Channer
49°29’36"S 70°09’41"E 49°22’59"S 70°11’08"
-49.49333 70.16138 -49.3831 70.1858

Ile Suhm
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Ilot Channer
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Monthly Sea Surface temperature (SST)

Equipment used for measurement and recording of temperature: HOBO
- video temperature probe :
- HOBO Optic USB Base Station :
- tutorial software :

Recorded sea water temperatures since 2012

S St/m 5 15 5 15 5 15 5 15 5 15 5 15
1 CHA x x X X X x X X
1 SUH x x X X X X X x X X
3 PXR X X x X X X X X X X
4 I3B X X x X X X X X X X
Year 12 13 14 15 16 17

S : Sectors: 1- Passe Royale, 2- Baie du Morbihan, 3- Choiseul, 4- Baleiniers, 5- Audierne
St : Stations: CHA: Ilot Channer, SUH: Ile Suhm, HAU: Ile Haute, LON: Ile Longue, PXR: Port Christmas, I3B: Ilot des Trois Bergers, PNO: Fjord des Portes Noires, MON: Ile du Prince de Monaco

PROTEKER data request form

Colonization plates

In every site, a system of 10 plates of raw clay (20 x 20 cm) is fixed to the rock face in a depth of about 10 m.
JPEG - 55.1 kb Colonization plates installed at the Ile Suhm

Useful references

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  • Lindstrom, S. C., Gabrielson, P. W., Hughey, J. R., Macaya, E. C. & Nelson, W. A. Sequencing of historic and modern specimens reveals cryptic diversity in <i>Nothogenia</i> (Scinaiaceae, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 54, 97-108 (2015).
    itemfields keyAUXHBPJG
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleSequencing of historic and modern specimens reveals cryptic diversity in <i>Nothogenia</i> (Scinaiaceae, Rhodophyta)
    AuthorLindstrom, Sandra C.
    AuthorGabrielson, Paul W.
    AuthorHughey, Jeffery R.
    AuthorMacaya, Erasmo C.
    AuthorNelson, Wendy A.
    Library CatalogCrossref
    Date Added2019-01-28T12:27:21Z

  • Moles, J., et al. Distribution patterns in Antarctic and Subantarctic echinoderms. Polar Biology 38, 799-813 (2015).
    itemfields keyMPH8MK25
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleDistribution patterns in Antarctic and Subantarctic echinoderms
    AuthorMoles, Juan
    AuthorFiguerola, Blanca
    AuthorCampanyà-Llovet, Neus
    AuthorMonleón-Getino, Toni
    AuthorTaboada, Sergi
    AuthorAvila, Conxita
    AbstractEchinoderms are the dominant megafaunal taxa in Antarctic and Subantarctic waters in terms of abundance and diversity, having a predominant role in structuring communities. The current study presents new data on the asteroids, holothuroids, and ophiuroids (three of the five extant classes of echinoderms) collected in seven scientific campaigns (1995–2012) from Bouvet Is., South Shetland Is., and the Eastern Weddell Sea, from a wide bathymetric range (0–1,525 m). Among the 316 echinoderms collected, we extended the bathymetric ranges of 15 species and expanded the geographic distribution of 36 of them. This novel dataset was analyzed together with previous reports in order to establish general patterns of geographic and bathymetric distribution in echinoderms of the Southern Ocean (SO). Nearly 57 % of the assembled-data species resulted endemic of the SO, although further taxonomic efforts in less accessible areas are needed. Interestingly, some islands presented high levels of species richness even comparable to large geographic areas. While generally exhibiting a wide range of eurybathy, there were differences in species composition across depths corresponding to sublittoral, upper and lower bathyal, and abyssal. Bathymetric distribution was analyzed considering biological aspects for each class. As expected, circumpolar trends were found, although hydrographic currents may be the cause of differences in species composition among SO areas. Our analyses suggest zoogeographic links between Antarctica and the adjacent ocean basins, being the Scotia Arc the most remarkable. This study contributes to the knowledge of large-scale diversity and distribution patterns in an Antarctic key group.
    PublicationPolar Biology
    ISSN0722-4060, 1432-2056
    Library CatalogCrossref
    Date Added2018-11-02T11:08:32Z

  • O’Loughlin, P. M., Mackenzie, M., Vandenspiegel, D. & Griffiths, H. New taeniogyrinid species of sea cucumber from the Weddell Sea (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Synaptida). Zootaxa 3995, 271 (2015).
    itemfields keyEJ55MRKY
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleNew taeniogyrinid species of sea cucumber from the Weddell Sea (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Synaptida)
    AuthorO’Loughlin, P. Mark
    AuthorMackenzie, Melanie
    AuthorVandenspiegel, Didier
    AuthorGriffiths, Huw
    ISSN1175-5334, 1175-5326
    Short TitleNew taeniogyrinid species of sea cucumber from the Weddell Sea (Echinodermata
    Library CatalogCrossref
    Date Added2018-11-02T11:42:27Z

  • Rautenberger, R., Huovinen, P. & Gómez, I. Effects of increased seawater temperature on UV tolerance of Antarctic marine macroalgae. Marine Biology 162, 1087-1097 (2015).
    itemfields key2KSG5ATH
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleEffects of increased seawater temperature on UV tolerance of Antarctic marine macroalgae
    AuthorRautenberger, Ralf
    AuthorHuovinen, Pirjo
    AuthorGómez, Iván
    PublicationMarine Biology
    ISSN0025-3162, 1432-1793
    Library CatalogCrossref
    Date Added2019-01-21T12:51:44Z

  • Sahade, R., et al. Climate change and glacier retreat drive shifts in an Antarctic benthic ecosystem. Science Advances 1, e1500050-e1500050 (2015).
    itemfields keyJ9L6QFN6
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleClimate change and glacier retreat drive shifts in an Antarctic benthic ecosystem
    AuthorSahade, R.
    AuthorLagger, C.
    AuthorTorre, L.
    AuthorMomo, F.
    AuthorMonien, P.
    AuthorSchloss, I.
    AuthorBarnes, D. K. A.
    AuthorServetto, N.
    AuthorTarantelli, S.
    AuthorTatian, M.
    AuthorZamboni, N.
    AuthorAbele, D.
    PublicationScience Advances
    Library CatalogCrossref
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2018-08-18T21:02:55Z

  • Saucède, T., et al. The phylogenetic position and taxonomic status of Sterechinus bernasconiae Larrain, 1975 (Echinodermata, Echinoidea), an enigmatic Chilean sea urchin. Polar Biology 38, 1223-1237 (2015).
    itemfields key9P7E3S7W
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleThe phylogenetic position and taxonomic status of Sterechinus bernasconiae Larrain, 1975 (Echinodermata, Echinoidea), an enigmatic Chilean sea urchin
    AuthorSaucède, Thomas
    AuthorDíaz, Angie
    AuthorPierrat, Benjamin
    AuthorSellanes, Javier
    AuthorDavid, Bruno
    AuthorFéral, Jean-Pierre
    AuthorPoulin, Elie
    AbstractSterechinus is a very common echinoid genus in benthic communities of the Southern Ocean. It is widely distributed across the Antarctic and South Atlantic Oceans and has been the most frequently collected and intensively studied Antarctic echinoid. Despite the abundant literature devoted to Sterechinus, few studies have questioned the systematics of the genus. Sterechinus bernasconiae is the only species of Sterechinus reported from the Pacific Ocean and is only known from the few specimens of the original material. Based on new material collected during the oceanographic cruise INSPIRE on board the R/V Melville, the taxonomy and phylogenetic position of the species are revised. Molecular and morphological analyses show that S. bernasconiae is a subjective junior synonym of Gracilechinus multidentatus (Clark). Results also show the existence of two genetically distinct subclades within the so-called Sterechinus clade: a Sterechinus neumayeri subclade and a subclade composed of other Sterechinus species. The three nominal species Sterechinus antarcticus, Sterechinus diadema, and Sterechinus agassizi cluster together and cannot be distinguished. The species Sterechinus dentifer is weakly differentiated from these three nominal species. The elucidation of phylogenetic relationships between G. multidentatus and species of Sterechinus also allows for clarification of respective biogeographic distributions and emphasizes the putative role played by biotic exclusion in the spatial distribution of species.
    PublicationPolar Biology
    ISSN0722-4060, 1432-2056
    Library CatalogCrossRef
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2017-05-08T09:46:01Z

  • Shao, A. E., Gille, S. T., Mecking, S. & Thompson, L. A. Properties of the Subantarctic Front and Polar Front from the skewness of sea level anomaly. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 120, 5179-5193 (2015).
    itemfields key6VPITQWT
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleProperties of the Subantarctic Front and Polar Front from the skewness of sea level anomaly
    AuthorShao, Andrew E.
    AuthorGille, Sarah T.
    AuthorMecking, Sabine
    AuthorThompson, LuAnne
    AbstractThe region of the Southern Ocean that encompasses the Subantarctic Front (SAF) to the north and the Polar Front (PF) to the south contains most of the transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Here skewness of sea level anomaly (SLA) from 1992 to 2013 is coupled with a meandering Gaussian jetw model to estimate the mean position, meridional width, and the percent variance that each front contributes to total SLA variability. The SAF and PF have comparable widths (85 km) in the circumpolar average, but their widths differ significantly in the East Pacific Basin (85 and 60 km, respectively). Interannual variability in the positions of the SAF and PF are also estimated using annual subsets of the SLA data from 1993 to 2012. The PF position has enhanced variability near strong topographic features such as the Kerguelen Plateau, the Campbell Plateau east of New Zealand, and downstream of Drake Passage. Neither the SAF nor the PF showed a robust meridional trend over the 20 year period. The Southern Annular Mode was significantly correlated with basin-averaged SAF and PF positions in the East Pacific and with the PF south of Australia. A correlation between the PF and the basin-scale wind stress curl anomaly was also found in the western extratropical Pacific but not in other basins.
    PublicationJournal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
    Datejuillet 2015
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Sharma, S., et al. A global database of lake surface temperatures collected by in situ and satellite methods from 1985–2009. Scientific Data 2, 150008 (2015).
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    TypeJournal Article
    TitleA global database of lake surface temperatures collected by in situ and satellite methods from 1985–2009
    AuthorSharma, Sapna
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    AuthorAdrian, Rita
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    AuthorAnneville, Orlane
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    AuthorBailey, John
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    AuthorDaly, Robert
    AuthorDokulil, Martin
    AuthorDong, Bo
    AuthorEwing, Kye
    Authorde Eyto, Elvira
    AuthorHamilton, David
    AuthorHavens, Karl
    AuthorHaydon, Shane
    AuthorHetzenauer, Harald
    AuthorHeneberry, Jocelyne
    AuthorHetherington, Amy L
    AuthorHiggins, Scott N
    AuthorHixson, Eric
    AuthorIzmest’eva, Lyubov R
    AuthorJones, Benjamin M
    AuthorKangur, Külli
    AuthorKasprzak, Peter
    AuthorKöster, Olivier
    AuthorKraemer, Benjamin M
    AuthorKumagai, Michio
    AuthorKuusisto, Esko
    AuthorLeshkevich, George
    AuthorMay, Linda
    AuthorMacIntyre, Sally
    AuthorMüller-Navarra, Dörthe
    AuthorNaumenko, Mikhail
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    Library CatalogCrossref
    Date Added2018-10-30T17:28:19Z

  • Arrigo, K. R. Sea ice ecosystems. Annual review of marine science 6, 439-67 (2014).
    itemfields keyWTEKG7J8
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleSea ice ecosystems.
    AuthorArrigo, Kevin R.
    AbstractPolar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.
    PublicationAnnual review of marine science
    Datejanvier 2014
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Fauchald, K. World Polychaeta Database. (2014).at
    itemfields keyKWPFZK7G
    TypeWeb Page
    TitleWorld Polychaeta Database
    AuthorFauchald, K.
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Figuerola, B., Gordon, D. P., Polonio, V., Cristobo, J. & Avila, C. Cheilostome bryozoan diversity from the southwest Atlantic region: Is Antarctica really isolated? Journal of Sea Research 85, 1-17 (2014).
    itemfields key9RAKJJPZ
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleCheilostome bryozoan diversity from the southwest Atlantic region: Is Antarctica really isolated?
    AuthorFiguerola, Blanca
    AuthorGordon, Dennis P.
    AuthorPolonio, Virginia
    AuthorCristobo, Javier
    AuthorAvila, Conxita
    AbstractDuring the Cenozoic, the break-up of Gondwana was accompanied by a gradual separation of its components and the subsequent establishment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, leading to a relative thermal and biogeographic isolation of the Antarctic fauna. However, the zoogeographical affinities of several taxa from South America and Antarctica have been subject to debate, bringing into question the extent of Antarctic isolation. Here we present new data on bryozoan species and their spatial distribution in the Argentine Patagonian (AP) region, as well as an analysis of the bryozoological similarities between deep ranges from Argentina and neighboring regions. A total of 108 species of cheilostome bryozoans (378 samples), belonging to 59 genera was found. Five new genera and 36 new species were found in the AP region, while 71 species were reported for the first time from Argentina. The bathymetric ranges of 94 species (87%) were expanded and a high proportion of the identified species (44.4%) also had an Antarctic distribution. The bryozoological affinities found in the current study between the nearest geographical neighbors are in agreement with the hypothesis of the sequential separation of Gondwana during the Cenozoic. Moreover, a high number of shared species, mainly from the slope, were found in this study between the AP region and Antarctica, thus supporting the idea that the Southern Ocean may have been less isolated over geological time than once thought.
    PublicationJournal of Sea Research
    Datejanvier 2014
    TagsAntarctic Polar Front · Falkland/Malvinas Current · Marine Invertebrates · Spatial Patterns · Species Richness · Zoogeography
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Froese, R. & Pauly, D. FishBase. (2014).at
    itemfields keyB7ZJ6SJN
    TypeWeb Page
    AuthorFroese, R.
    AuthorPauly, D.
    TagsAngling · Aquaculture · Aquarium · Biodiversity · Catch · Database · Demo · Diving · Fish · FishBase · FishBase 98 · Fisheries · Genetics · Hobbyist · ICLARM · Ichthyology · Identification · Indigenous Knowledge · Metabolism · Ornamental · Population Dynamics · Reef · Software · Tropical · Windows · Yield · biology
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Guiry, M. D. & Guiry, G. M. Algaebase. (2014).at
    itemfields key7HS2RGT9
    TypeWeb Page
    AuthorGuiry, Michael D.
    AuthorGuiry, G.M.
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Gutt, J., Piepenburg, D. & Voß, J. Asteroids, ophiuroids and holothurians from the southeastern Weddell Sea (Southern Ocean). ZooKeys 434, 1-15 (2014).
    itemfields keyX24R97ZH
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleAsteroids, ophiuroids and holothurians from the southeastern Weddell Sea (Southern Ocean)
    AuthorGutt, Julian
    AuthorPiepenburg, Dieter
    AuthorVoß, Joachim
    AbstractUntil the early 1980s, the composition and distribution of the asteroid (starfish), ophiuroid (brittle star) and holothurian (sea cucumber) bottom fauna of the southeastern Weddell Sea was virtually unknown. This southernmost part of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean is a typical high-latitude Antarctic region located in the circumpolar permanent pack-ice zone. It became accessible for large-scale scientific surveys only through the availability of modern ice-breaking research vessels, such as the German RV “Polarstern”. Here, we describe a dataset of the faunal composition and abundance of starfish, brittle star and sea cucumber assemblages in this area, based on collections from trawl catches carried out during three “Polarstern” cruises in 1983, 1984 and 1985. The set comprises a total of 4,509 records of abundances of 35 asteroid species (with a total of 2,089 specimens) and 38 ophiuroid species (with a total of 18,484 specimens) from 34 stations, as well as of 66 holothurian species (with a total of 20,918 specimens) from 59 stations including zero-abundances (absences). A synthesizing zoogeographical community analysis confirms the presence of three distinct assemblages of asteroids, ophiuroids, and holothurians with highest species richness on the eastern shelf. Overall, starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers were present at all sites investigated in the study area but composition and abundance of asterozoan (asteroids and ophiuroids together) and holothurian fauna varied considerably. A synthesizing zoogeographical community analysis confirms the presence of three distinct assemblages of asteroids, ophiuroids, and holothurians with highest species richness on the eastern shelf. In the case of asterozoans, water depth and latitude seemed to be the most important drivers of assemblage distribution and composition. One of the holothurian assemblages was part of the rich macrozoobenthic community dominated by a diverse and abundant epifauna, mainly sponges and gorgonians. Another one was mainly composed of vagrant deposit-feeding species inhabiting a predominantly non-colonised substratum. In addition, a mixed holothurian assemblage was identified.
    ISSN1313-2970, 1313-2989
    Library CatalogCrossRef
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2018-04-04T16:50:12Z

  • Haye, P. A., et al. Phylogeographic Structure in Benthic Marine Invertebrates of the Southeast Pacific Coast of Chile with Differing Dispersal Potential. PLoS ONE 9, e88613-e88613 (2014).
    itemfields keyXTWFSIQC
    TypeJournal Article
    TitlePhylogeographic Structure in Benthic Marine Invertebrates of the Southeast Pacific Coast of Chile with Differing Dispersal Potential
    AuthorHaye, Pilar A.
    AuthorSegovia, Nicolás I.
    AuthorMuñoz-Herrera, Natalia C.
    AuthorGálvez, Francisca E.
    AuthorMartínez, Andrea
    AuthorMeynard, Andrés
    AuthorPardo-Gandarillas, María C.
    AuthorPoulin, Elie
    AuthorFaugeron, Sylvain
    EditorMacKenzie, Brian R.
    AbstractThe role of dispersal potential on phylogeographic structure, evidenced by the degree of genetic structure and the presence of coincident genetic and biogeographic breaks, was evaluated in a macrogeographic comparative approach along the north-central coast of Chile, across the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Using 2,217 partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene of eight benthic invertebrate species along ca. 2,600 km of coast, we contrasted dispersal potential with genetic structure and determined the concordance between genetic divergence between biogeographic regions and the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Genetic diversity and differentiation highly differed between species with high and low dispersal potential. Dispersal potential, sometimes together with biogeographic region, was the factor that best explained the genetic structure of the eight species. The three low dispersal species, and one species assigned to the high dispersal category, had a phylogeographic discontinuity coincident with the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Furthermore, coalescent analyses based on the isolation-with-migration model validate that the split between biogeographic regions north and south of 30°S has a historic origin. The signatures of the historic break in high dispersers is parsimoniously explained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow that have erased the genetic signatures, if ever existed, in high dispersers. Of the four species with structure across the break, only two had significant albeit very low levels of asymmetric migration across the transition zone. Historic processes have led to the current biogeographic and phylogeographic structure of marine species with limited dispersal along the north-central coast of Chile, with a strong lasting impact in their genetic structure.
    PublicationPLoS ONE
    Datefévrier 2014
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Hodgson, D. A., et al. Glacial history of sub-Antarctic South Georgia based on the submarine geomorphology of its fjords. Quaternary Science Reviews 89, 129-147 (2014).
    itemfields keyVXHN2WB9
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleGlacial history of sub-Antarctic South Georgia based on the submarine geomorphology of its fjords
    AuthorHodgson, Dominic A.
    AuthorGraham, Alastair G.C.
    AuthorGriffiths, Huw J.
    AuthorRoberts, Stephen J.
    AuthorCofaigh, Colm Ó
    AuthorBentley, Michael J.
    AuthorEvans, David J.A.
    AbstractWe present multibeam swath bathymetric surveys of the major fjords surrounding the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia to characterise the glacial geomorphology and to identify the relative timings and extent of past glacial advance and retreat. Bathymetry data revealed a range of glacial features including terminal, retreat and truncated moraines, deep (distal) outer and shallow (proximal) inner basins and cross shelf troughs. These provide evidence of glacial advance and retreat through several glacial cycles. A near consistent pattern of large scale submarine geomorphological featureswas observed in the different fjords suggesting a similar response of margins of the island ice cap to past climate forcing. A relative chronology based on the relationships between the submarine features with their radiocarbon and cosmogenic isotope dated terrestrial counterparts suggests that widely observed inner basin moraines date from the last major glacial advance or Last Glacial Maximum, while deep basin moraines may date from an earlier (pre-LGM) more extensive glaciation, which wespeculate corresponds toMIS6. On the sides of the deep basins a series of truncated moraines show ice advance positions from preceding glacial periods. The cross shelf troughs, and mid-trough moraines are interpreted as the product of much more extensive glaciations that predate the fjord geomorphology mapped here, thus possibly older thanMIS6. This hypothesis would suggest that South Georgia followed a glacial history similar to that of central Patagonia (46S) where a series of Pleistocene glaciations (of MIS 20 and younger) extended beyond LGM limits, with the most extensive glacial advance occurring at c. 1.1 Ma.
    PublicationQuaternary Science Reviews
    Dateavril 2014
    TagsGeochronology · Geomorphology · Glacial history · Glaciation · Swath bathymetry
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2017-05-05T10:06:29Z

  • Mah, C. L. The World Asteroidea Database. (2014).at
    itemfields key4N7CGDMI
    TypeWeb Page
    TitleThe World Asteroidea Database
    AuthorMah, Christopher L.
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Martín-Ledo, R. & López-González, P. J. Brittle stars from Southern Ocean (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Polar Biology 37, 73-88 (2014).
    itemfields keyUDM7RB6T
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleBrittle stars from Southern Ocean (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea)
    AuthorMartín-Ledo, Rafael
    AuthorLópez-González, Pablo J.
    AbstractThe present biogeographic study on the ophiuroid fauna from the Southern Ocean (SO) contains an updated checklist, based on a compilation of all the published information provided for the Antarctic and sub- Antarctic regions as well as the information available in SCAR-MarBIN database. Faunal composition and geographical and bathymetric distribution are included. So far, 219 species have been recorded, of which 126 are endemic to the SO, 76 are exclusive to Antarctic waters, and 30 are exclusive to sub-Antarctic waters. This study corroborated the circumpolar and eurybathic character of the ophiuroid fauna of the SO, but some differences are discussed when considering shelf and deep-sea fauna in the whole SO, or in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions separately. The biogeographic affinities of 17 areas considered in the SO are revised, based on a presence/absence datamatrix of the 219 species. This similarity analysis shows three main groups, two of them including sub-Antarctic areas and one for Antarctic areas. The faunal movement patterns between the main geographical connections have been based on historical site records of each species. These movements have a level of faunal exchange that exceeds that of other Antarctic benthic groups. Such movements are mainly from Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions to the subtropical waters of South America, and from New Zealand and southern Australian waters to sub-Antarctic areas. In this context, the origin of the ophiuroid Antarctic fauna is discussed.
    PublicationPolar Biology
    Dateoctobre 2014
    TagsAntarctica · Biogeography · Circumpolarity · Ophiuroids · benthos · endemism
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Mystikou, A., et al. Seaweed biodiversity in the south-western Antarctic Peninsula: surveying macroalgal community composition in the Adelaide Island/Marguerite Bay region over a 35-year time span. Polar Biology 37, 1607-1619 (2014).
    itemfields keyBKXRDCQI
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleSeaweed biodiversity in the south-western Antarctic Peninsula: surveying macroalgal community composition in the Adelaide Island/Marguerite Bay region over a 35-year time span
    AuthorMystikou, Alexandra
    AuthorPeters, Akira F.
    AuthorAsensi, Aldo O.
    AuthorFletcher, Kyle I.
    AuthorBrickle, Paul
    Authorvan West, Pieter
    AuthorConvey, Peter
    AuthorKüpper, Frithjof C.
    PublicationPolar Biology
    ISSN0722-4060, 1432-2056
    Short TitleSeaweed biodiversity in the south-western Antarctic Peninsula
    Library CatalogCrossref
    Date Added2019-01-29T15:11:26Z

  • OBIS, OBIS - Ocean Biogeographic information system. (2014).at
    itemfields keyWG5WKD5R
    TypeWeb Page
    TitleOBIS - Ocean Biogeographic information system
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Peck, L. S., Morley, S. A., Richard, J. & Clark, M. S. Acclimation and thermal tolerance in Antarctic marine ectotherms. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 16-22 (2014).
    itemfields key4BBVVDK3
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleAcclimation and thermal tolerance in Antarctic marine ectotherms
    AuthorPeck, L. S.
    AuthorMorley, S. A.
    AuthorRichard, J.
    AuthorClark, M. S.
    PublicationJournal of Experimental Biology
    ISSN0022-0949, 1477-9145
    Library CatalogCrossref
    Date Added2018-10-01T18:12:51Z

  • Poulin, E., González-Wevar, C., Díaz, A., Gérard, K. & Hüne, M. Divergence between Antarctic and South American marine invertebrates: What molecular biology tells us about Scotia Arc geodynamics and the intensification of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (2014).doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.07.017
    itemfields keyQ8Z2JJRG
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleDivergence between Antarctic and South American marine invertebrates: What molecular biology tells us about Scotia Arc geodynamics and the intensification of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current
    AuthorPoulin, Elie
    AuthorGonzález-Wevar, Claudio
    AuthorDíaz, Angie
    AuthorGérard, Karin
    AuthorHüne, Mathias
    Abstracta b s t r a c t Keywords: mtDNA divergence COI Molecular clock hypothesis (MCH) Central Scotia Sea Middle Miocene climatic transition ACC onset and intensification Continental drift processes such as major gateway openings have been historically advocated to explain the dis-tribution of marine benthic taxa in the Southern Ocean (SO). The separation between Antarctic Peninsula and the southern tip of South America together with the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) represent the final step for the complete isolation of the Antarctic region. However, there is still controversy concerning the timing and mode of this process, and especially about the role of the Scotia Arc geodynamics in the development of a fully deep and intensified ACC circulation. Based on mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI) se-quences obtained from different taxa, we performed molecular comparisons between Antarctic and South American relatives to provide independent time estimations of Antarctica's isolation. We include in the analyses congeneric Antarctic and Patagonian near-shore marine benthic invertebrates including indirect developers (Nacella, Yoldia, Sterechinus, and Parbolasia) and brooders (Xymenopsis and Trophonella). Considering the levels of genetic differentiation between relatives from both regions and assuming the molecular clock hypothesis, we estimated the onset of their respective divergence. On one hand, similar levels of genetic distance in broadcast–spawners (7%–8.3%) support the hypothesis that the development of an effective barrier between Antarctica and South America occurred almost simultaneously for these groups. Divergence time estimations based on specific substitution rates indicate that the separation occurred near the Mio-Pliocene transition, long after the physical separation of both continents. Genetic distance and divergence time estimation in direct developers indicate an older separation time, close to the mid-Miocene. Even when the analyzed groups included both broadcast–spawners and brooder organisms, the divergence between Antarctic and South America lineages rather than being related to processes of continental drift, seems to be associated more to major changes in the Southern Ocean such as the evolution of the Scotia Arc and the deepening of the Drake Passage. Accordingly, these results support a genetic continuity between Antarctica and South America, probably along the Scotia Ridge, until the middle Miocene and a late ACC intensification at the Mio-Pliocene boundary.
    Date Added2017-05-05T16:31:33Z

  • Romiguier, J., et al. Comparative population genomics in animals uncovers the determinants of genetic diversity. Nature 515, 261-263 (2014).
    itemfields keyH6F747PK
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleComparative population genomics in animals uncovers the determinants of genetic diversity
    AuthorRomiguier, J.
    AuthorGayral, P.
    AuthorBallenghien, M.
    AuthorBernard, A.
    AuthorCahais, V.
    AuthorChenuil, A.
    AuthorChiari, Y.
    AuthorDernat, R.
    AuthorDuret, L.
    AuthorFaivre, N.
    AuthorLoire, E.
    AuthorLourenco, J. M.
    AuthorNabholz, B.
    AuthorRoux, C.
    AuthorTsagkogeorga, G.
    AuthorWeber, A. A.-T.
    AuthorWeinert, L. A.
    AuthorBelkhir, K.
    AuthorBierne, N.
    AuthorGlémin, S.
    AuthorGaltier, N.
    ISSN0028-0836, 1476-4687
    Library CatalogCrossRef
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Roquet, F., et al. A Southern Indian Ocean database of hydrographic profiles obtained with instrumented elephant seals. Scientific Data 1, 140028 (2014).
    itemfields key48BTMC9K
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleA Southern Indian Ocean database of hydrographic profiles obtained with instrumented elephant seals
    AuthorRoquet, Fabien
    AuthorWilliams, Guy
    AuthorHindell, Mark A.
    AuthorHarcourt, Rob
    AuthorMcMahon, Clive
    AuthorGuinet, Christophe
    AuthorCharrassin, Jean-Benoit
    AuthorReverdin, Gilles
    AuthorBoehme, Lars
    AuthorLovell, Phil
    AuthorFedak, Mike
    PublicationScientific Data
    Library CatalogCrossref
    Date Added2018-09-20T08:40:08Z

  • Schiaparelli, S., Ghiglione, C., Alvaro, M. C., Griffiths, H. J. & Linse, K. Diversity, abundance and composition in macrofaunal molluscs from the Ross Sea (Antarctica): results of fine-mesh sampling along a latitudinal gradient. Polar Biology (2014).doi:10.1007/s00300-014-1487-9
    itemfields keyKB6DNQK2
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleDiversity, abundance and composition in macrofaunal molluscs from the Ross Sea (Antarctica): results of fine-mesh sampling along a latitudinal gradient
    AuthorSchiaparelli, Stefano
    AuthorGhiglione, Claudio
    AuthorAlvaro, Maria Chiara
    AuthorGriffiths, Huw J.
    AuthorLinse, Katrin
    AbstractThe Latitudinal Gradient Program (2002–2011) aimed at understanding the marine and terrestrial ecosystems existing along the Victoria Land coast (Ross Sea), an area characterized by strong latitudinal clines in environmental factors. During the program’s voyage of the Italian RV “Italica” in 2004, a fine-mesh towed gear, the “Rauschert dredge”, was deployed for the first time at 18 stations in four latitudinal distinct shelf areas between ~71°S and ~74°S. The collected samples contained undescribed species and new records for the Ross Sea from a variety of different marine taxa. Here, we describe the molluscan fauna and investigate evidences for latitudinal effects on molluscan diversity, abundance and assemblage composition. No significant latitudinal trends were detected: while diversity did not vary significantly with latitude, species richness showed an apparent but non-significant decrease with increasing latitude. Beta-diversity was found to be high both within and between latitudinally distinct shelf areas. A large fraction (~20 %) of the collected molluscs corresponded to new species records for the Ross Sea or undescribed species. Rarity in Antarctic molluscan occurrences was confirmed, with singletons (i.e. species represented by only a single individual) accounting for a 22 % and uniques (i.e. species occurring in one sample only) for a 43.5 % of the total presence. Our study of the smaller macrofaunal benthic fraction showed that Antarctic marine research still has far to go to have robust reference baselines to measure possible changes in benthic communities, even in the case of the assumed well-known, well-sampled and well-studied group of Ross Sea shelf molluscs. We advocate the use of fine-mesh trawling gears for routine sampling activities in future Antarctic expeditions to assess the full marine biodiversity.
    PublicationPolar Biology
    Datemars 2014
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Schuchert, P. World Hydrozoa Database - Intro. (2014).at
    itemfields keyM86FEVDQ
    TypeWeb Page
    TitleWorld Hydrozoa Database - Intro
    AuthorSchuchert, P.
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Shenkar, N., et al. Ascidiacea World Database. (2014).at
    itemfields keyAPPS4QXP
    TypeWeb Page
    TitleAscidiacea World Database
    AuthorShenkar, N.
    AuthorGittenberger, A.
    AuthorLambert, G.
    AuthorRius, M.
    AuthorMoreira Da Rocha, R.
    AuthorSwalla, B.J.
    AuthorTurron, X.
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Silberfeld, T., Rousseau, F. & Reviers, B. de An Updated Classification of Brown Algae (Ochrophyta, Phaeophyceae). Cryptogamie, Algologie 35, 117-156 (2014).
    itemfields keyJI2DCXZZ
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleAn Updated Classification of Brown Algae (Ochrophyta, Phaeophyceae)
    AuthorSilberfeld, Thomas
    AuthorRousseau, Florence
    AuthorReviers, Bruno de
    PublicationCryptogamie, Algologie
    ISSN0181-1568, 1776-0984
    Library CatalogCrossref
    Date Added2019-01-17T17:31:55Z

  • Smith Jr., W. O., Ainley, D. G., Arrigo, K. R. & Dinniman, M. S. The Oceanography and Ecology of the Ross Sea. Annual review of marine science 6, 469-487 (2014).
    itemfields keyM3XRD9T7
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleThe Oceanography and Ecology of the Ross Sea
    AuthorSmith Jr., Walker O.
    AuthorAinley, David G.
    AuthorArrigo, Kevin R.
    AuthorDinniman, Michael S.
    AbstractThe continental shelf of the Ross Sea exhibits substantial variations in physical forcing, ice cover, and biological processes on a variety of time and space scales. Its circulation is characterized by advective inputs from the east and exchanges with off-shelf regions via the troughs along the northern portions. Phytoplankton biomass is greater there than anywhere else in the Antarctic, although nitrate is rarely reduced to levels below 10 μmol L−1. Overall growth is regulated by irradiance (via ice at the surface and by the depths of the mixed layers) and iron concentrations. Apex predators reach exceptional abundances, and the world's largest colonies of Adélie and emperor penguins are found there. Krill are represented by two species (Euphausia superba near the shelf break and Euphausia crystallorophias throughout the continental shelf region). Equally important and poorly known is the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum), which is also consumed by most upper-trophic-level predators. Future...
    PublicationAnnual review of marine science
    Datejanvier 2014
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Stephens, T. A. & Hepburn, C. D. Mass-transfer gradients across kelp beds influence Macrocystis pyrifera growth over small spatial scales. Marine Ecology Progress Series 515, 97-109 (2014).
    itemfields key7IFEQDA6
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleMass-transfer gradients across kelp beds influence Macrocystis pyrifera growth over small spatial scales
    AuthorStephens, Tiffany A.
    AuthorHepburn, Christopher D.
    PublicationMarine Ecology Progress Series
    ISSN0171-8630, 1616-1599
    Library CatalogCrossref
    Date Added2019-01-18T02:01:43Z

  • Stöhr, S. & O'Hara, T. D. The World Ophiuroidea Database. (2014).at
    itemfields keyAJV7UPX5
    TypeWeb Page
    TitleThe World Ophiuroidea Database
    AuthorStöhr, Sabine
    AuthorO'Hara, Timothy D.
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Trathan, P. N., et al.Advances in Marine Biology 69, 15-78 (Elsevier, 2014).
    itemfields keyEK48I4MM
    TypeBook Section
    TitleThe South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands MPA. Protecting A Biodiverse Oceanic Island Chain Situated in the Flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current
    AuthorTrathan, Philip N.
    AuthorCollins, Martin A.
    AuthorGrant, Susie M.
    AuthorBelchier, Mark
    AuthorBarnes, David K.A.
    AuthorBrown, Judith
    AuthorStaniland, Iain J.
    Book TitleAdvances in Marine Biology
    Library CatalogCrossref
    ExtraDOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-800214-8.00002-5
    Date Added2018-09-20T11:50:27Z

  • Van Soest, R. W. M., et al. World Porifera Database. (2014).at
    itemfields keyJSF552IP
    TypeWeb Page
    TitleWorld Porifera Database
    AuthorVan Soest, R.W.M
    AuthorBoury-Esnault, Nicole
    AuthorHooper, J.N.A.
    AuthorRützler, K.
    Authorde Voogd, N.J.
    AuthorAlvarez de Glasby, B.
    AuthorHajdu, E.
    AuthorPisera, A.B.
    AuthorManconi, R.
    AuthorSchoenberg, C.
    AuthorJanussen, D.
    AuthorTabachnick, K.R.
    AuthorKlautau, M.
    AuthorPicton, B.
    AuthorKelly, M.
    AuthorVacelet, Jean
    AuthorDohrmann, M.
    AuthorCristina Díaz, M.
    AuthorCárdenas, P.
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • WoRMS editorial Board, WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species. (2014).at
    itemfields keyEATB9M83
    TypeWeb Page
    TitleWoRMS - World Register of Marine Species
    AuthorWoRMS editorial Board
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z


  • Barnes, D. K. A. Marine biology: new light on growth in the cold. Current biology 23, R609-R611 (2013).
    itemfields keyFSRZH7XW
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleMarine biology: new light on growth in the cold.
    AuthorBarnes, David K.A.
    AbstractThe recent collapse of the Antarctic Larson ice shelves revealed a slow growing benthic community on the seabed below. But a revisit just four years later revealed rapid growth of glass sponges. Antarctic continental shelves could become sites of significant carbon sequestration.
    PublicationCurrent biology
    Datejuillet 2013
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Boraso de Zaixso, A. & Zaixso, J. M. Elementos para el estudio de las macroalgas de Argentina. (2013).at
    itemfields keyDSRTP68Y
    TitleElementos para el estudio de las macroalgas de Argentina
    AuthorBoraso de Zaixso, Alicia
    AuthorZaixso, Juan Manuel
    SeriesPublicaciones del IDC
    Series NumberManuales nº 1
    EditionComodoro Rivadavia : Universitaria de la Patagonia
    PlaceChubut, Argentina
    Date Added2019-01-21T03:23:46Z

  • Boschen, R. E., Tyler, P. A. & Copley, J. T. Distribution, population structure, reproduction and diet of Ophiolimna antarctica (Lyman, 1879) from Kemp Caldera in the Southern Ocean. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 92, 27-35 (2013).
    itemfields key42KTZW2E
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleDistribution, population structure, reproduction and diet of Ophiolimna antarctica (Lyman, 1879) from Kemp Caldera in the Southern Ocean
    AuthorBoschen, Rachel E.
    AuthorTyler, Paul A.
    AuthorCopley, Jonathan T.
    AbstractA new population of Ophiolimna antarctica (Lyman, 1879) was discovered at 1546m in Kemp Caldera, a topographic feature with active hydrothermal venting at the southern end of the South Sandwich Islands, Southern Ocean. The distribution, population structure, reproduction, and diet of O. antarctica were investigated. O. antarctica were found predominantly on basalt with an over-dispersed distribution. The mean density was 17 individuals m−2 with a range of 9–24 individuals m−2. There was a bimodal population structure, with separate juvenile and adult peaks. Sexes were separate and the sex ratio was not significantly different from equality. The maximum oocyte diameter was 520μm, suggesting direct or lecithotrophic development, whilst individual females reproduced asynchronously. Stomach contents included crustacean fragments, flocculate material, diatoms, forams, fish scales, and ophiuroid tissues and spines, which was indicative of omnivory. There was no apparent influence of hydrothermal vents <500m away on the diet of Ophiolimna antarctica. The ecology of Ophiolimna antarctica is consistent with what is known for other Antarctic and deep-sea ophiuroid species.
    PublicationDeep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography
    Dateaoût 2013
    TagsAntarctic · Diet · Ophiuroid · Reproduction · deep sea · distribution
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Brown, A. & Thatje, S. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth. Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society (2013).doi:10.1111/brv.12061
    itemfields key6P62VPDM
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleExplaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.
    AuthorBrown, Alastair
    AuthorThatje, Sven
    AbstractBathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal effects on metabolic-rate-dependent mutation and on generation times have been proposed to drive differences in speciation rates, which result in modern latitudinal biodiversity patterns over time. Clearly, this thermal mechanism alone cannot explain bathymetric patterns since temperature generally decreases with depth. We hypothesise that demonstrated physiological effects of high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature at bathyal depths, acting on shallow-water taxa invading the deep sea, may invoke a stress-evolution mechanism by increasing mutagenic activity in germ cells, by inactivating canalisation during embryonic or larval development, by releasing hidden variation or mutagenic activity, or by activating or releasing transposable elements in larvae or adults. In this scenario, increased variation at a physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths results in elevated speciation rate. Adaptation that increases tolerance to high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature allows colonisation of abyssal depths and reduces the stress-evolution response, consequently returning speciation of deeper taxa to the background rate. Over time this mechanism could contribute to the unimodal diversity-depth pattern.
    PublicationBiological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
    Dateoctobre 2013
    TagsMacroecology · colonisation · deep sea · diversity · evolution · hydrostatic pressure · invertebrate · radiation · speciation · temperature
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Child, C. A.Antarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida: Nymphonidae, Colossendeidae, Rhynchothoraxidae, Pycnogonidae, Endeididae, and Callipallenidae 69-111 (American Geophysical Union, 2013).at
    itemfields keyNGGBDEMA
    TypeBook Section
    TitleAntarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida IV. The Families Colossendeidae and Rhynchothoraxidae
    AuthorChild, C. Allan
    Book TitleAntarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida: Nymphonidae, Colossendeidae, Rhynchothoraxidae, Pycnogonidae, Endeididae, and Callipallenidae
    PublisherAmerican Geophysical Union
    ExtraDOI: 10.1002/9781118668252.ch2
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Child, C. A.Antarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida: Nymphonidae, Colossendeidae, Rhynchothoraxidae, Pycnogonidae, Endeididae, and Callipallenidae (Child, C. A.) 113-160 (American Geophysical Union, 2013).at
    itemfields key63PDFMHV
    TypeBook Section
    TitleAntarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida V. The families Pycnogonidae, Phoxichilidiidae, Endeididae, and Callipallenidae, Including the Genus Pallenopsis
    AuthorChild, C. Allan
    EditorChild, C. Allan
    Book TitleAntarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida: Nymphonidae, Colossendeidae, Rhynchothoraxidae, Pycnogonidae, Endeididae, and Callipallenidae
    PublisherAmerican Geophysical Union
    ExtraDOI: 10.1002/9781118668252.ch3
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Danis, B. A field guide to Antarctic sponges. a Field Guide to Antarctic Sponges (2013).at
    itemfields keyC58BND5G
    TypeWeb Page
    TitleA field guide to Antarctic sponges
    AuthorDanis, Bruno
    Website Titlea Field Guide to Antarctic Sponges
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Emig, C. Brachiopoda World Database - Search taxa. (2013).at
    itemfields keyTNWNRMGG
    TypeWeb Page
    TitleBrachiopoda World Database - Search taxa
    AuthorEmig, Christian
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Fillinger, L., Janussen, D., Lundälv, T. & Richter, C. Rapid glass sponge expansion after climate-induced Antarctic ice shelf collapse. Current biology : CB 23, 1330-4 (2013).
    itemfields keyI34E9GDM
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleRapid glass sponge expansion after climate-induced Antarctic ice shelf collapse.
    AuthorFillinger, Laura
    AuthorJanussen, Dorte
    AuthorLundälv, Tomas
    AuthorRichter, Claudio
    AbstractOver 30% of the Antarctic continental shelf is permanently covered by floating ice shelves, providing aphotic conditions for a depauperate fauna sustained by laterally advected food. In much of the remaining Antarctic shallows (<300 m depth), seasonal sea-ice melting allows a patchy primary production supporting rich megabenthic communities dominated by glass sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida). The catastrophic collapse of ice shelves due to rapid regional warming along the Antarctic Peninsula in recent decades has exposed over 23,000 km(2) of seafloor to local primary production. The response of the benthos to this unprecedented flux of food is, however, still unknown. In 2007, 12 years after disintegration of the Larsen A ice shelf, a first biological survey interpreted the presence of hexactinellids as remnants of a former under-ice fauna with deep-sea characteristics. Four years later, we revisited the original transect, finding 2- and 3-fold increases in glass sponge biomass and abundance, respectively, after only two favorable growth periods. Our findings, along with other long-term studies, suggest that Antarctic hexactinellids, locked in arrested growth for decades, may undergo boom-and-bust cycles, allowing them to quickly colonize new habitats. The cues triggering growth and reproduction in Antarctic glass sponges remain enigmatic.
    PublicationCurrent biology : CB
    Datejuillet 2013
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • González-Wevar, C. A., Saucède, T., Morley, S. A., Chown, S. L. & Poulin, E. Extinction and recolonization of maritime Antarctica in the limpet Nacella concinna (Strebel, 1908) during the last glacial cycle: toward a model of Quaternary biogeography in shallow Antarctic invertebrates. Molecular ecology 22, 5221-36 (2013).
    itemfields keyS56HH3S6
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleExtinction and recolonization of maritime Antarctica in the limpet Nacella concinna (Strebel, 1908) during the last glacial cycle: toward a model of Quaternary biogeography in shallow Antarctic invertebrates.
    AuthorGonzález-Wevar, C A
    AuthorSaucède, T
    AuthorMorley, S A
    AuthorChown, S L
    AuthorPoulin, E
    AbstractQuaternary glaciations in Antarctica drastically modified geographical ranges and population sizes of marine benthic invertebrates and thus affected the amount and distribution of intraspecific genetic variation. Here, we present new genetic information in the Antarctic limpet Nacella concinna, a dominant Antarctic benthic species along shallow ice-free rocky ecosystems. We examined the patterns of genetic diversity and structure in this broadcast spawner along maritime Antarctica and from the peri-Antarctic island of South Georgia. Genetic analyses showed that N. concinna represents a single panmictic unit in maritime Antarctic. Low levels of genetic diversity characterized this population; its median-joining haplotype network revealed a typical star-like topology with a short genealogy and a dominant haplotype broadly distributed. As previously reported with nuclear markers, we detected significant genetic differentiation between South Georgia Island and maritime Antarctica populations. Higher levels of genetic diversity, a more expanded genealogy and the presence of more private haplotypes support the hypothesis of glacial persistence in this peri-Antarctic island. Bayesian Skyline plot and mismatch distribution analyses recognized an older demographic history in South Georgia. Approximate Bayesian computations did not support the persistence of N. concinna along maritime Antarctica during the last glacial period, but indicated the resilience of the species in peri-Antarctic refugia (South Georgia Island). We proposed a model of Quaternary Biogeography for Antarctic marine benthic invertebrates with shallow and narrow bathymetric ranges including (i) extinction of maritime Antarctic populations during glacial periods; (ii) persistence of populations in peri-Antarctic refugia; and (iii) recolonization of maritime Antarctica following the deglaciation process.
    PublicationMolecular ecology
    Dateoctobre 2013
    TagsMollusca · South Georgia Island · approximate Bayesian computations · glacial refugia · maritime Antarctica · mtDNA · peri-Antarctic areas · private haplotype
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

  • Grange, L. J. & Smith, C. R. Megafaunal Communities in Rapidly Warming Fjords along the West Antarctic Peninsula: Hotspots of Abundance and Beta Diversity. PLoS ONE 8, e77917 (2013).
    itemfields key4NMKA8TH
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleMegafaunal Communities in Rapidly Warming Fjords along the West Antarctic Peninsula: Hotspots of Abundance and Beta Diversity
    AuthorGrange, Laura J.
    AuthorSmith, Craig R.
    EditorArchambault, Philippe
    PublicationPLoS ONE
    Short TitleMegafaunal Communities in Rapidly Warming Fjords along the West Antarctic Peninsula
    Library CatalogCrossref
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2018-08-18T21:42:32Z

  • Griffiths, H. J., Linse, K. & Crame, J. A. Southern Ocean Mollusc Database (SOMBASE). (2013).at
    itemfields keyUP9NZ5GP
    TypeJournal Article
    TitleSouthern Ocean Mollusc Database (SOMBASE)
    AuthorGriffiths, Huw J.
    AuthorLinse, Katrin
    AuthorCrame, J. Alistair
    itemfields collectionsArray
    Date Added2017-05-05T09:50:24Z

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Les fonds des îles escales du Marion-Dufresne 2 étant presque totalement inconnus, PROTEKER profite des escales du navire pour, en fonction des conditions logistiques et météorologiques, avec l’autorisation du commandant et de l’OPA, pour effectuer des explorations en plongée ou au moyen d’un ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle).

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*- 1964 Ecologie infralittorale à Kerguelen (Paul Grua)

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Géologie des îles Kerguelen Auteurs : CHOTIN Pierre, GIRET André, producteur : CERIMES, Réalisateur : BAUX Jean-Pierre, 1987, 18 min
L’exploration géologique des îles Kerguelen (un des plus beaux (...)

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Friday 2 November 2018
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Summer campaign 2018

PROTEKER 7 (3 nov. 2018 – 29 dec. 2018 in the field) is the 4th summer campaign of Proteker-phase 2.
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