PROTEKER: Implementation of an underwater observatory at Kerguelen

JPEG - 2.7 kb Effects of global change on the marine benthos and habitats in Kerguelen Islands. Establishment of a base line for ecological and genetic monitoring, protection and conservation

In the current context of climate changes, variations of the sea level and of marine biodiversity [particularly benthic], (extinction, shifts, replacements, “exotic” and invading species) will affect the Southern Islands, particularly in coastal waters. Sites explored during past ocean cruises or by diving around Kerguelen, having given place to collections and research tasks, are revisited during cruises of « La Curieuse ». The observations and the examination of these new collections are compared with those carried out since the Seventies. All the data, old and new, are/will be captured in existing or compatible databases associated with a GIS. Certain species of which the genetic structure is known are selected for a genetic monitoring and the determination of sensitive areas. The whole will bring the scientific bases to the determination of zones to be protected (site, area and optimum distances between the protected zones) and managed.

New on the site
Mar. 2017 a PROTEKER’s model species (Abatus cordatus) on the net
Feb. 2017 PROTEKER-the project VideoClip [FR]
Jan. 2017 PROTEKER-phase1 in Rapport d’activité IPEV
presentation PROTEKER-phase1 Public Conferences in Endoume
carnet de mission 2016-06
carnet de mission 2016-05
carnet de mission 2016-04
carnet de mission 2016-03
carnet de mission 2016-02
carnet de mission 2016-01
Déc. 2016 carnet de mission aux îles australes 2016
Oct. 2016 presentation Intn. Conf. Ecological Sciences, 24-28/10/2016, Marseille, France
Mai 2016 presentation 2nd Eur. Conf. Scientific Diving, 9-11/05/2016, Kristineberg, SE
diaporama campaign 2015
online publishing of the sea temperature monitoring
diaporama campaign 2014
diaporama campaign 2013
diaporama campaign 2011-12

- France Télévisions reporting FR3 (2014) (Marie Herenstein)
PROTEKER sequence begins at 02:45

Click on the thumbail to download
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Article in "Espèces", 2016: Féral (J.-P.), Beurier (J.-P.), Marschal (C.), Marty (G.), Motreuil (S.), Poulin (E.), Roca (J.-C.), Saucède (T.). Kerguelen, un archipel sous haute surveillance. Espèces , 21 : 33-39.

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Article in "Underwater Technology", 2016: Féral (J.-P.), Saucède (T.), Poulin (E.), Marschal (C.), Marty (G.), Roca (J.-C.), Motreuil (S.), Beurier (J.-P.). PROTEKER : implementation of a submarine observatory at the Kerguelen islands (Southern Ocean). Underwater Technology 34(1) : 3-10. doi : 10.3723/ut.34.003

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Rapport d’activité de l’IPEV, 2016: Féral (J.-P.), Saucède (T.), Améziane (N.) 2016. PROTEKER phase 1: l’installation. Un observatoire sous-marin des effets du changement global sur les communautés benthiques côtières de l’Archipel des Kerguelen. Rapport d’activité, Campagne d’été 2015-2016 incluse, IPEV, Brest, pp. 28-35. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32380.13448

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Presentation of PROTEKER phase 1 (general public)

PROTEKER, IPEV program 1044 - Summer field campaigns

This IPEV program n° 1044 - PROTEKER has been launched during the austral summer 2011-2012. It is coordonated by Jean-Pierre Féral (IMBE, Marseille) and Nadia Améziane (MNHN, Paris - Concarneau). Several marine labaratories are involved in France, and also in Belgium and Chile (see partners page).

The objective of PROTEKER is to check the probable impact of climate changes at sea which implicatesdata mining and revisiting already known sites. An underwater observatory is implemented to monitor representative coastal habitats. At the end, the project will produce an inventory of existing data, capture those which are still not available (gray litterature) and manage them in a georeferenced database.
The field part will permit to chose the sites to be monitored and to make qualitative(*) comparisons between the present state and how it was 10 to 50 years ago. This is possible thanks to the availability of La Curieuse in the Kerguelen waters. She can sail all around the Island (except the west coast where the conditions are always very rough) and in the Golfe du Morbihan making possible to explore a lot of coastal habitats. Three summer campaigns have been asked.
To plan these cruises and campaigns regarding the framework of the international environmental law makes it possible to produce “useful” data. The multidisciplinary missions could also help to determine bioregions and select protection criteria for research development, protection of ecosystems.
(*) Only sedimentary bottoms of the Baie du Morbihan have been studied "quantitatively". There is no quantitative record for hard substrates.

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The trawler "La Curieuse"

- The first field campaign was done around Kerguelen Island, onboard "La Curieuse" from December 12th, 2011 and January 9th, 2012. It was dedicated to exploration and choice of observation sites. Some were equiped of temperature recorders. See report (in French)
- The field cruise 2012-13 was cancelled following the damage of the "Marion Dufresne II" to Crozet where she struck a shoal.
- The second field campaign (November 30th - December 17th, 2013) made it possible to complete the installation of 7 monitored sites, north and south of Kerguelen coast and in the Bay of Morbihan. Temperature recorders were deployed as well as colonization plates. See report (in French)
- The third and last scientific cruise at sea is planned for the southern summer 2014-2015

The observations are made by means of diving (down to 30 m depth) and using a mini-ROV - right (down to 100 m depth)

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Sampling and shooting
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Mini-ROV "Observer" (Subsea Tech)

Collections are made by diving and trawling - right (100 m long hauls, 3 min at 1 kn at 50 m and 100 m depth)

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Collection of organisms
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Agassiz type trawl _ Kerguelen

The chosen sites of observation are equipped with temperature recorders - left (5 m and 15 m depth) and of plates of colonization - right (approximately 10 m depth)

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thermorecorder _ fouling
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Colonization plate

Partners and participants

PROTEKER is coordonated by Jean-Pierre Féral (IMBE, Marseille) and Nadia Améziane (MNHN, Paris-Concarneau).
Several laboratories collaborate to this program
in France

  • Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Écologie marine et continentale, IMBE - Research unit 7263, Marseille
  • Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, MNHN, Paris
    • Biologie des organismes et écosystèmes aquatiques - UMR 7208 BOREA
    • Institut de Systématique, Evolution et Biodiversité - UMR 7205 ISEB
    • Evolution Paris Seine - UMR 7138
  • Laboratoire d’océanographie et du climat: expérimentations et approches numériques - UMR 7159 LOCEAN, Paris
  • Biogéosciences UMR 6282, Dijon
  • Centre de droit maritime et océanique EA 1165, Nantes
  • Observatoire Océanologique de Banyuls-sur-Mer UMS 2348
  • Réserve Naturelle des Terres Australes Françaises

and abroad

  • Chile:
    • LEM, Santiago
    • LMAS, Punta Arenas
  • Belgium:
    • BIOMAR, Brussels
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D. Aurelle G. Bellan D. Bellan-Santini A. Chenuil-Maurel
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J.-P. Féral C. Marschal C. Rocher M. Selva
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J. Vacelet N. Améziane R. Causse G. Duhamel
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M. Eléaume M. Hautecoeur P. Bouchet B. de Reviers de Maury
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A. Dettaï G. Lecointre C. Ozouf-Costaz E. Sultan
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B. David S. Motreuil S. Pierrat T. Saucède
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J.-C. Roca J.-P. Beurier E. Poulin C. Gonzalez-Wevar
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A. Diaz C. De Ridder G. Marty R. David

Observation sites

Height sites have been chosen around Kerguelen Island:
- two on the north coast ( Choiseul and Baleiniers sectors): Baie de l’Oiseau (Port Christmas) and Îlot des Trois Bergers.
- two on the south coast (Audierne sector): Fjord des Portes Noires and Îles du Prince de Monaco
- two at the bottom of the Baie du Morbihan: Île Haute and Île Longue
- two in the surroundings of the Passe Royale: Île Suhm and Ilot Channer.


Baie de l’Oiseau - Port Christmas

48°40’55"S 69°01’58"E
-48.68194 69.03277
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Îlôt des Trois Bergers

49°17’24"S 69°42’41"E
-49.29000 69.71138
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Fjord des Portes Noires Iles du Prince de Monaco
49°29’39"S 69°08’58"E 49°36’00"S 69°14’23"E
-49.49416 69.14944 -49.60000 69.23972
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Île Haute Île Longue
49°23’15"S 69°56’29"E 49°32’19"S 69°53’03"E
-49.38750 69.94138 -49.53861 69.88416

Ile Haute
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Ile Longue
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Passe Royale

Île Suhm Ilot Channer
49°29’36"S 70°09’41"E 49°22’59"S 70°11’08"
-49.49333 70.16138 -49.3831 70.1858

Ile Suhm
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Ilot Channer
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Equipment used for measurement and recording of temperature: HOBO
- video temperature probe :
- HOBO Optic USB Base Station :
- tutorial software :

Recorded sea water temperatures

Sector Station/Depth(m) 5 15 5 15 5 15 5 15 5 15
1 Ilot Channer X X
1 Ile Suhm X X X X
2 Ile Haute X X X X X X X
2 Ile Longue X X X X X X X X
3 Port Christmas X X X X X
4 Ilot des Trois Bergers X X X
5 Fjord des Portes Noires X X X X
5 Iles du Prince de Monaco X X
Year 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Sectors: 1- Passe Royale, 2- Baie du Morbihan, 3- Choiseul, 4- Baleiniers, 5- Audierne

All data are copyright - ©PROTEKER
Sea water temperature at 15m depth in the Baie du Morbihan - 2012-2015
IL: Ile Longue, IH: Ile Haute, IS: Ile Suhm, IC: Ilot Channer
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Colonization plates

In every site, a system of 10 plates of raw clay (20 x 20 cm) is fixed to the rock face in a depth of about 10 m.
JPEG - 55.1 kb Colonization plates installed at the Ile Suhm

Useful references

Abele Doris

  • Abele, Doris, Brey, Thomas, and Philipp, Eva. 2009. “Bivalve Models Of Aging And The Determination Of Molluscan Lifespans.”. Experimental Gerontology 44 (5): 307-15. doi:10.1016/j.exger.2009.02.012.
    Abstract: Bivalves are newly discovered models of natural aging. This invertebrate group includes species with the longest metazoan lifespan approaching 400 y, as well as species of swimming and sessile lifestyles that live just for 1 y. Bivalves from natural populations can be aged by shell growth bands formed at regular intervals of time. This enables the study of abiotic and biotic environment factors (temperature, salinity, predator and physical disturbance) on senescence and fitness in natural populations, and distinguishes the impact of extrinsic effectors from intrinsic (genetic) determinants of animal aging. Extreme longevity of some bivalve models may help to analyze general metabolic strategies thought to be life prolonging, like the transient depression of metabolism, which forms part of natural behaviour in these species. Thus, seasonal food shortage experienced by benthic filter feeding bivalves in polar and temperate seas may mimic caloric restriction in vertebrates. Incidence of malignant neoplasms in bivalves needs to be investigated, to determine the implication of late acting mutations for bivalve longevity. Finally, bivalves are applicable models for testing the implication of heterozygosity of multiple genes for physiological tolerance, adaptability (heterozygote superiority), and life expectancy.
    Tags: Aging, Aging: genetics, Aging: physiology, Animals, Antarctic, Biomedical Research, Bivalve, Bivalvia, Bivalvia: genetics, Genes, Genetic, Heterozygosity, Heterozygote, Longevity, Longevity: genetics, Longevity: physiology, Metabolic rate depression, Models, Species Specificity, Stress tolerance.

Aldea Cristian

  • Aldea, Cristian, Olabarria, Celia, and Troncoso, Jesús S. 2008. “Bathymetric Zonation And Diversity Gradient Of Gastropods And Bivalves In West Antarctica From The South Shetland Islands To The Bellingshausen Sea”. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 55 (3): 350-368. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2007.12.002.
    Abstract: Depth-related zonation and diversity patterns are important topics in the study of deep-sea fauna, at both species and assemblage levels. These patterns may be attributed to complex and combined physical and/or biological factors. The lack of information about the West Antarctic deep sea is an important handicap to understanding the global-scale benthic diversity patterns. Detailed studies of the bathymetric distributions and diversity of deep-sea species in the Antarctic are needed to elucidate the factors contributing to global-scale benthic patterns. This study, based on a large data set, examined the bathymetric distribution, patterns of zonation and diversity–depth trends of gastropods and bivalves in West Antarctica, from the South Shetland Islands to the Bellingshausen Sea, a very poorly known area. A total of 647 individuals of gastropods belonging to 82 species and a total of 2934 individuals of bivalves belonging to 52 species were collected. Most gastropods showed discrete depth distributions, whereas most bivalves showed broader depth ranges. Replacement of species with depth was more gradual for bivalves than gastropods. Nevertheless, three bathymetric boundaries could be recognized: (1) a continental shelf zone from 0 to 400m with a gradual rate of succession, (2) an upper slope zone from 400 to 800m and (3) a lower slope zone from 800 to 2000m, extending to 3300m for bivalves. Diversity patterns were complex for both groups with no significant trends with depth.
  • Aldea, Cristian, Zelaya, Diego G., and Troncoso, Jesús S. 2011. “A New Gigantic Species Of Zeidora Adams, 1860 From Antarctic Waters (Gastropoda: Fissurellidae)”. The Nautilus 125 (2): 79-82.
    Abstract: A new species of Zeidora, Z. antarctica new species, is described from Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica. The species is characterized by having a large and low shell, with delicate shell sculpture, spire extending beyond the shell’s outline, and relatively wide septum, curved at the anterior margin.
    Tags: Bellingshausen Sea, Southern Ocean.

Ali Jason R.

  • Ali, Jason R., and Aitchison, Jonathan C. 2009. “Kerguelen Plateau And The Late Cretaceous Southern-Continent Bioconnection Hypothesis: Tales From A Topographical Ocean”. Journal Of Biogeography 36 (9): 1778-1784. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02105.x.
    Abstract: Aim To evaluate rigorously an influential palaeobiogeographical hypothesis which states that in the Late Cretaceous (until c. 80 Ma) the Kerguelen Plateau provided a terrestrial causeway between East Antarctica and India that, in turn, formed part of a longer overland route between South America and Madagascar. Location Southern Ocean, Indian Ocean, East Antarctica, India and Madagascar. Methods Palaeogeographical modelling drawing on geological and geophysical data, bathymetric charts and plate tectonic reconstructions. Results During the Late Cretaceous, only small portions of the present-day Kerguelen Plateau were sub-aerial. Additionally, the plateau’s north-north-west and south-south-east ends did not directly abut India and Antarctica, but instead were separated by large gaps. Thus, the notion that the two continents were then linked by a land route running the entire length of the edifice is almost certainly incorrect. Main conclusions The currently available physical evidence indicates that the Late Cretaceous southern-continent connection hypothesis, which is based exclusively on biological data, is untenable. Assuming the fossil and/or extant biological records of Madagascar–India are closely related to those of South America, alternative palaeogeographical scenarios need to be explored to explain this conundrum. Overwater dispersal and/or an alternative passage involving a more direct route via Africa (with crossings of the Mozambique Channel and a then appreciably narrower Central Atlantic) should be considered.
    Tags: Abelisaurid dinosaurs, Antarctica, Beelzebufo ampinga, India, Kerguelen plateau, landbridge, Late Cretaceous, Madagascar, South America, Sudamericid Gondwanatherian mammals.

Allcock A. L.

  • Allcock, A. L. 2005. “On The Confusion Surrounding Pareledone Charcoti (Joubin, 1905) (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae): Endemic Radiation In The Southern Ocean”. Zoological Journal Of The Linnean Society 143 (1): 75-108. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2004.00146.x.
    Abstract: Until recently, all papillated specimens of Pareledone were ascribed to the species Pareledone charcoti (Joubin, 1905): of which R aurorae (Berry, 1917) was considered a junior synonym. Re-examination of the papillated type material of Pareledone, coupled with extensive fishing over several years off the Antarctic Peninsula, has led to a revision of this position. Seven new species of papillated Pareledone are identified from the Antarctic Peninsula region. They, are identified by subtle taxonomic characters, such as the morphology and placement of their papillae: although traditional indices often fail to separate the species. Whilst apparently sympatric, there is some evidence of niche separation of these species with respect to depth. A key is provided for their identification.

Allcock A. Louise

  • Allcock, A. Louise, Barratt, Iain, Eléaume, Marc, Linse, Katrin, Norman, Mark D., Smith, Peter J., Steinke, Dirk, Stevens, Darren W., and Strugnell, Jan M. 2011. “Cryptic Speciation And The Circumpolarity Debate: A Case Study On Endemic Southern Ocean Octopuses Using The Coi Barcode Of Life”. Deep Sea Research Part Ii: Topical Studies In Oceanography 58 (1-2): 242-249. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.05.016.
    Abstract: Three hundred and fifty specimens of the endemic Southern Ocean octopus genus Pareledone ,were sequenced for the barcoding gene COI. Geographic coverage comprised the South Shetland Islands, the Ross Sea, Ade ́ lie Land, George V Land, the Weddell Sea, under the site of the former Larsen B ice shelf, Prydz Bay, the South Orkney Islands and the Amundsen Sea. The greatest number of specimens was captured at the three first-mentioned localities. At least 11 species were represented in the samples and the analyses revealed cryptic species. Six species were found to have extended distributions. Circumpolarity is supported for at least one species. Evidence is presented for a barrier to gene flow to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula, with haplotypes of P. aequipapillae becoming progressively more diverse in a clockwise direction from the South Shetland Islands to the Amundsen Sea. This pattern is akin to that seen in ring species, although we suggest that comparatively warm bottom water acts as a physical barrier preventing completion of the ring
    Tags: Circumpolarity, DNA barcoding, Pareledone, Ring species.

  • Allcock, A. Louise, Collins, Martin A., and Vecchione, Michael. 2003. “A Redescription Of Graneledone Verrucosa (Verrill, 1881) (Octopoda, Octopodidae)”. Journal Molluscan Studies 69 (2): 135-143. doi:10.1093/mollus/69.2.135.
    Abstract: Graneledone verrucosa (Verrill 1881), the type species of the genus Graneledone, is redescribed based on historical material and previously unreported specimens that have resulted from an increase in deep-sea fishing in the North East Atlantic. Graneledone verrucosa var. media (Joubin 1918) was found to be invalid and is herein synonymized with G. verrucosa. Graneledone verrucosa is shown to inhabit deep water throughout the North Atlantic; its distribution extends from 20{degrees} to 65{degrees} N and from 9{degrees} to 75{degrees} W. A revised diagnosis is given for the genus Graneledone Joubin, 1918.

  • Allcock, A. Louise, Hocberg, F.G., Rodhouse, P.G.K., and Thorpe, J.P. 2003. “Adelieledone, A New Genus Of Octopodid From The Southern Ocean”. Antarctic Science 15 (4): 415-424. doi:10.1017/S0954102003001512.
    Abstract: The syntypes of the endemic Southern Ocean octopodid Pareledone polymorpha (Robson, 1930) were re-examined and measurements, counts and indices are presented. The two forms described by Robson, namely oblonga and affinis, are determined to have no taxonomic validity. The species polymorpha shows morphological similarities with Pareledone adelieana (Berry, 1917) but differs in relative arm lengths, sucker counts, external colouration and size at maturity. Both species are transferred to the new genus Adelieledone, which is separated from the genus Pareledone s.s. by the transverse ridges in the ligula groove of the hectocotylus, the sharp tip of the lower beak, the enlarged posterior salivary glands, the absence of stylets and by skin sculpture, especially by the presence of two longitudinal integumentary ridges on the dorsal mantle. A new species, Adelieledone piatkowski, is described from the Antarctic Peninsula. Beak morphology can discriminate the genera in predator studies.
    Tags: Antarctica, Cephalopoda, Octopodidae, Pareledone, taxonomy..

  • Allcock, A. Louise, and Piertney, S.B. 2002. “Evolutionary Relationships Of Southern Ocean Octopodidae (Cephalopoda: Octopoda) And A New Diagnosis Of Pareledone”. Marine Biology 140 (1): 129-135. doi:10.1007/s002270100687.
    Abstract: The phylogenetic relationships of eight species of incirrate octopodid from western Antarctica were investigated using molecular sequence data from the mitochondrial 16s ribosomal RNA gene. The genus Pareledone, which is endemic to the Antarctic, was found to be polyphyletic. On the basis of this and previous morphological studies, it is suggested that species that are morphologically similar to Pareledone polymorpha should be removed from the genus. This simplifies the diagnosis of Pareledone: a new diagnosis is given. The subfamilies Eledoninae and Graneledoninae were also found to be polyphyletic. The applicability of using the presence of an ink sac as a taxonomic character to define the subfamilies is discussed. Loss of an ink sac is almost certainly an adaptation to depth and use of this character has produced an artificial classification with no evolutionary significance. As the other two subfamilies, Octopodinae and Bathypolypodinae, are also separated by this character, it is probable that all the subfamilies of the Octopodidae are polyphyletic. The use of subfamilies should therefore be discontinued until our understanding of the evolution of the family Octopodidae increases.

  • Allcock, A. Louise, and Strugnell, Jan M. 2012. “Southern Ocean Diversity: New Paradigms From Molecular Ecology.”. Trends In Ecology & Evolution 27 (9): 520-528. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2012.05.009.
    Abstract: Southern Ocean biodiversity reflects past climate, oceanographic, and tectonic changes. Molecular data from contemporary populations carry signatures of these processes. Here, we review new molecular studies on Southern Ocean benthic fauna. Many of these studies focus on species with extensive geographic or bathymetric distributions, and resolve taxonomic questions. Reviewing all available data, we show that, in addition to reflecting life-history characteristics, the molecular signals found in these studies provide an insight into how species survived the last glacial maximum (LGM). We identify molecular signatures that are characteristic of surviving glacial cycles in small refugia on the continental shelf and distinguish them from molecular signatures that are indicative of surviving glacial cycles in the deep sea.
    Tags: Animals, Antarctic Regions, Biodiversity, Demography, Demography: statistics & numerical data, Ecology, Ecology: trends, Ecosystem, environment, Genetic Variation, Geography, Geography: statistics & numerical data, Ice Cover, Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology: methods, Molecular Biology: trends, Oceans and Seas, Species Specificity.

Allman M.D.

Améziane Nadia

  • Améziane, Nadia, Eléaume, Marc, Hemery, Lenaïg G., Monniot, Françoise, Hemery, Arzhela, Hautecoeur, Mélyne, and Dettaï, Agnès. 2011. “Biodiversity Of The Benthos Off Kerguelen Islands : Overview And Perspectives”. In The Kerguelen Plateau: Marine Ecosystem And Fisheries, 157-167.
    Tags: - benthos - biodiversity, acc, and constitutes a natural, change, circumpolar current, flow of the antarctic, front, kerguelen plateau - climate, located just south of, obstacle to the eastward, park et, the kerguelen plateau is, the polar.

André Marc

  • André, Marc. 1932. “Crustacés Recueillis Par M. E. Aubert De La Rüe Auc Îles Kerguelen, Saint-Paul Et De La Nouvelle-Amsterdam”. Bulletin Du Muséum D'histoire Naturelle, Ser.2 4 (2): 174-181.
    Abstract: Au cours de ses recherches aux îles Kerguelen, Saint-Paul et de la Nouvelle-Amsterdam (1931), M. E. Aubert de la Rüe a recueilli quelques Crustacés comprenant dix espèces : un Macroure (le Palinurus Lalandei Lmk. qui lait l'objet, à l'île Saint-Paul, d'un commerce assez actif), deux Brachyoures, un Amphipode et six Isopodes.

Angot M.

Arabi Juliette

  • Arabi, Juliette, Cruaud, Corinne, Couloux, Arnaud, and Hassanin, Alexandre. 2010. “Studying Sources Of Incongruence In Arthropod Molecular Phylogenies: Sea Spiders (Pycnogonida) As A Case Study.”. Comptes Rendus Biologies 333 (5): 438-53. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2010.01.018.
    Abstract: In this report, we analyze the phylogeny of Pycnogonida using the three nuclear and three mitochondrial markers currently sequenced for studying inter- and intrafamilial relationships within Arthropoda: 18S and 28S rRNA genes, Histone H3, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), 12S and 16S rRNA genes. We identify several problems in previous studies, due to the use of inappropriate sequences (taxonomic misidentification, DNA contamination, sequencing errors, missing data) or taxa (outgroup choice). Our analyses show that most markers are not powerful to study the phylogeny of sea spiders. The results suggest however a recent diversification of the group (Mesozoic rather than Paleozoic) and the early divergence of Austrodecidae, followed by Colossendeidae, Pycnogonidae and Rhynchothoracidae. Except Ammotheidae and Callipallenidae, all other families were recovered as monophyletic. Analyses of synonymous sites in CO1 sequences reveal an extreme heterogeneity of nucleotide composition within sea spiders, as six unrelated species show a reverse strand-specific bias. We therefore suggest that several independent reversals of asymmetric mutational constraints occurred during the evolution of Pycnogonida, as a consequence of genomic inversions involving either the control region or a fragment containing the CO1 gene. These hypotheses are supported by the comparison of two complete mitochondrial genomes of sea spiders (Achelia bituberculata and Nymphon gracile) with that of Limulus.
    Tags: 16S, 16S: chemistry, 16S: genetics, Animals, Arthropods, Arthropods: classification, Arthropods: genetics, Base Sequence, Bayes Theorem, Electron Transport Complex IV, Electron Transport Complex IV: genetics, Histones, Histones: genetics, Phylogeny, Probability, Protein Subunits, Protein Subunits: genetics, Ribosomal, Ribosomal: genetics, RNA.

Arango Claudia P.

  • Arango, Claudia P., Soler-Membrives, Anna, and Miller, Karen J. 2011. “Genetic Differentiation In The Circum—Antarctic Sea Spider Nymphon Australe (Pycnogonida; Nymphonidae)”. Deep Sea Research Part Ii: Topical Studies In Oceanography 58 (1-2): 212-219. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.05.019.
    Abstract: Nymphon australe Hodgson 1902 is the most abundant species of sea spiders in the Southern Ocean. The species is recognised as highly morphologically variable, circumpolar and eurybathic—which is surprising given that sea spiders lack a planktonic stage; the fertilised eggs and larvae remain attached to the ovigers of the father, and consequently have limited dispersal capacity. In this study, we investigate the genetic structure of N. australe populations around Antarctica, confronting the apparent limited dispersal ability with its recognised circumpolarity. Here we analyse mitochondrial DNA of specimens from Antarctic Peninsula, Weddell Sea and East Antarctica to determine if they represent populations of the widespread N. australe — or instead we can recognise cryptic species – and how genetically different they are. Both CO1 and 16S sequence data produced single haplotype networks for N. australe from all three Antarctic locations without indication of cryptic speciation. However, we found strong phylogeographic structure among the three Antarctic locations based on CO1 data. There was only a single shared haplotype between the Antarctic Peninsula and the East Antarctica locations, and all three regions were significantly subdivided from each other (FST=0.28, p<0.01). Furthermore, within the Antarctic Peninsula and East Antarctic locations, we found evidence of genetic subdivision between populations of N. australe separated by 10–100s of km (FST=0.07–0.22, p<0.05), consistent with sea spiders life history traits indicating a limited dispersal capability. We conclude N. australe represents a single circum-Antarctic species that, despite its limited dispersal abilities, has successfully colonised large parts of the Antarctic marine ecosystem through geological history. However, clear genetic differences among and within locations indicate contemporary gene flow is limited, and that populations of N. australe around Antarctica are effectively isolated.
    Tags: Antarctica, dispersal, East Antarctica, Genetic diversity, Mitochondrial DNA, Nymphonidae, Phylogeography, Pycnogonida, Southern Ocean, Weddell Sea.

Arnaud Françoise

Arnaud Patrick M.

  • Arnaud, Patrick M. 1972. “Invertébrés Marins Des Xiième Et Xvème Expeditions Antarctiques Françaises En Terre Adélie 8. Gastéropodes Prosobranchs.”. Tethys Suppl. 4: 105-134.

  • Arnaud, Patrick M. 1972. “Notes Écologiques Sur Zanclorhynchus Spinifer (Téléostéen, Congiopodidae) Aux Îles Kerguelen Et Sur Sa Prédation Par Les Pétrels Géants Macronectes Spp. Par Arnaud Patrick M.: Tethys 4 (3) 1972 - Sylvain Paré”. Tethys 4 (3): 757-760.
  • Arnaud, Patrick M. 1979. “Ecologie, Biogéographie Et Caractères Biologiques Des Pélécypodes Macrobenthiques Du Plateau Des Iles Kerguelen (Sud. Océan Indien).”. Mémoires Du Muséum National D'histoire Naturelle, Paris N.s. Série C 43: 221-233.
  • Arnaud, Patrick M. 1971. “Les Moulières À Mytilus Et Aulacomya Des Îles Kerguelen (Sud De L'océan Indien). Les 'moulières De Seuil' Et Leur Intérêt Possible Pour L'aquaculture Des Pélécypodes”. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires Des Séances De L'académie Des Sciences. Série D: Sciences Naturelles 272: 1423-1425.

  • Arnaud, Patrick M. 1974. “Contribution À La Bionomie Marine Benthique Des Régions Antarctiques Et Subantarctiques”. Tethys 6 (3): 467-653.
  • Arnaud, Patrick M. 1977. “Adaptations Within The Antarctic Marine Benthic Ecosystem”. In Adaptations Within Antarctic Ecosystems, Proceedings Of The Third Scar Symposium On Antarctic Biology., 135-157.
    Abstract: An attempt is made to distinguish between three levels of adaptation among the bcnthic organisms of the antarctic area: (1) general adaptation to the sea bottom (morphological adaptation to the substrate); (2) adaptation to polar conditions (adaptation to cold and ice processes) observed in arctic and antarctic regions; and (3) adaptation to conditions which seem more or less restricted to the antarctic benthic ecosystem or are more well developed there. The adaptations included in the second and third categories are related to nutritive processes (omnivorous or opportunistic diet, seasonal or regular necrophagy, suspension feeding}, reproductive processes (brood protection, periodicity, and the timing of reproduction), and metabolic processes (respiration, growth, giantism and dwarfing, calcium and silica requirements, and physiological adaptations of the white-bloodcd fishes). These peculiarities are discussed in relation to the characteristics of the antarctic or polar ecosystem, or both, along with diversity and energy problems. Most of these adaptations have arisen as a result of differences in the past histories and present conditions of the two polar regions, and they are, for the most part, adaptations that conserve energy.

  • Arnaud, Patrick M. 1973. “Le Genre Lepas Linné, 1758, Dans Les Terres Australes Et Antarctiques Françaises (Cirripedia)”. Crustaceana 24 (2): 157-162.
    Abstract: The present note contains first records of Lepas anatifera (on objects washed ashore) and L. australis (on a ship's hull) from Amsterdam Island, 37°50'S and 77°36'E, as well as a first record of the latter (on kelp roots and in birds stomach contents) from Possession Island, 46° 25'S and 51°52'E, and East Island (Crozet Islands). Descriptions of the specimens and notes on geographical distribution, including comments on transportation by kelp, pumice, penguins and seals, are given. It is suggested, on the basis of the few differences between the two species and of their geographical distribution, that Lepas australis may be a poorly calcified southern subspecies of Lepas anatifera. So, L. australis is tentatively renamed L. anati f era australis Darwin, 1851.

  • Arnaud, Patrick M., and Bandel, Klaus. 1976. “Comments On Six Species Of Marine Antarctic Littorinacea (Mollusca, Gastropoda)”. Tethys 8 (3).

  • Arnaud, Patrick M., and Beurois, Jean. 1971. “Première Signalisation Des Genres Charonia Et Ranella Aux Îles Saint-Paul Et Amsterdam (Océan Indien) Et Révision Du Genre Argobuccinum (Gastropoda Cymatiidae)”. Tethys 3 (4).

  • Arnaud, Patrick M., Beurois, Jean, and Noël, Pierre. 1972. “Portunidae Et Grapsidae Des Îles Saint Paul Et Amsterdam, Océan Indien (Decapoda, Brachyura)”. Beaufortia 20 (259): 7-14.
    Abstract: Description and remarks concerning two species from Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands. The first record of Ovalipes trimaculatus (de Haan, 1833) from Saint Paul Island means a large eastward extension of the previously known distribution of the species (South America, Tristan da Cunha and South Africa). Some pelagic Grapsidae from Amsterdam Island are regarded as conspecific with the specimens of Pachygrapsus sp. recently described from Tristan da Cunha Islands by Holthuis & Sivertsen, and identified as Planes marinus Rathbun, 1914, a species new to the Indian Océan. Lepas anatifera anatifera is recorded as epizoic on a pereiopod of this latter brachyuran.

Aronson Richard B

  • Aronson, Richard B, Moody, Ryan M, Ivany, Linda C, Blake, Daniel B, Werner, John E, and Glass, Alexander. 2009. “Climate Change And Trophic Response Of The Antarctic Bottom Fauna.”. Eds. Craig R. McClain. Plos One 4 (2): e4385-e4385. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004385.
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: As Earth warms, temperate and subpolar marine species will increasingly shift their geographic ranges poleward. The endemic shelf fauna of Antarctica is especially vulnerable to climate-mediated biological invasions because cold temperatures currently exclude the durophagous (shell-breaking) predators that structure shallow-benthic communities elsewhere. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the Eocene fossil record from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, to project specifically how global warming will reorganize the nearshore benthos of Antarctica. A long-term cooling trend, which began with a sharp temperature drop approximately 41 Ma (million years ago), eliminated durophagous predators-teleosts (modern bony fish), decapod crustaceans (crabs and lobsters) and almost all neoselachian elasmobranchs (modern sharks and rays)-from Antarctic nearshore waters after the Eocene. Even prior to those extinctions, durophagous predators became less active as coastal sea temperatures declined from 41 Ma to the end of the Eocene, approximately 33.5 Ma. In response, dense populations of suspension-feeding ophiuroids and crinoids abruptly appeared. Dense aggregations of brachiopods transcended the cooling event with no apparent change in predation pressure, nor were there changes in the frequency of shell-drilling predation on venerid bivalves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rapid warming in the Southern Ocean is now removing the physiological barriers to shell-breaking predators, and crabs are returning to the Antarctic Peninsula. Over the coming decades to centuries, we predict a rapid reversal of the Eocene trends. Increasing predation will reduce or eliminate extant dense populations of suspension-feeding echinoderms from nearshore habitats along the Peninsula while brachiopods will continue to form large populations, and the intensity of shell-drilling predation on infaunal bivalves will not change appreciably. In time the ecological effects of global warming could spread to other portions of the Antarctic coast. The differential responses of faunal components will reduce the endemic character of Antarctic subtidal communities, homogenizing them with nearshore communities at lower latitudes.
    Tags: Ancient, Animals, Antarctic Regions, Biodiversity, Biological, Echinodermata, Echinodermata: physiology, Ecosystem, Extinction, Fossils, Geography, Greenhouse Effect, History, Predatory Behavior, Principal Component Analysis, Time Factors.

Arrigo Kevin R.

  • Arrigo, Kevin R. 2014. “Sea Ice Ecosystems.”. Annual Review Of Marine Science 6: 439-67. doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-010213-135103.
    Abstract: Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

Ashford J.

  • Ashford, J., Duhamel, Guy, Jones, C., and Bobko, S. 2005. “Age, Growth And Mortality Of Patagonian Toothfish (Dissostichus Eleginoides) Caught Off Kerguelen”. Ccamlr Science 12: 29-41.
    Abstract: Ages of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) caught off Kerguelen in 1999 were estimated by reading transverse-sectioned otoliths. Randomly interspersed otoliths from reference collections were used to measure precision; relative bias for the age data was estimated to be –0.6 years and residual variance 2.9. Age distributions of toothfish caught by two vessels showed discrepancies due to gear-specific catchability, or differences in the available population with depth or season. Age–length keys were constructed for use in assessing toothfish catches made by trawlers and longliners at Kerguelen, and longevity was estimated to be 36 years. Total instantaneous mortality Z was estimated to be between 0.09 and 0.12. Significant differences in age-at-length data between sexes were found, estimating von Bertalanffy parameters for males to be L∞ = 95.9, K = 0.12, t0 = –4.6 and for females L∞ = 103.5, K = 0.11, t0 = –4.7.

Atkin Andrew

  • Atkin, Andrew. 2008. “New Light On The British National Antarctic Expedition (Scott’S Discovery Expedition) 1901-1904.”.
    Abstract: Graduate Certificate in Antarctic Studies: Most literature about Captain Scott relates to his final tragic Terra Nova expedition, and narrative of the Discovery expedition is eclipsed. The value of the Discovery expedition turned out ultimately to be a training exercise for Scott’s later enterprise. It had considerable geographic and scientific successes that are not adequately recognised. This analysis is extended to determine whether the Discovery expedition achieved Sir Clements Markham’s prime objective. He imagined a polar expedition that would be a springboard to promotion and advancement for ambitious young officers and men. This paper enhances the body of literature on polar history through deeper analysis of some of the key events, the presentation of new theses regarding outcomes of the Discovery expedition and by making first comparisons of personal accounts of certain events. These are used to elaborate three key questions: • Did the expedition achieve its stated objectives? • How did technique and technology for polar expedition work evolve on this enterprise? • Were the crew well served by the diversions instituted to maintain emotional, mental and physical wellbeing over the polar winter? I have honed the focus by selection of themes, and highlight events from the first year of the expedition that are especially telling, and that have been reported variously in the diaries and journals mentioned. I focus on interpersonal relations and represent insights into character wherever possible. This is intended to address the shortfall of commentary on crewmember’s personality and character represented in available literature. A brief, preliminary life history of the central character, Louis Bernacchi, is required to provide context to the reader. I use quotes from letters and diaries that support my points, and which describe and elucidate the social climate and activities of the expedition. I also draw on secondary sources in support of my statements. Throughout this study dates refer to 1902 unless otherwise specified. Quotes from diaries, journals and correspondence are faithful to the original with respect to spelling, punctuation and grammar except where they are unintelligible.

Aubert de la Rüe E.

Australian Antarctic Division

Ayress M. A.

  • Ayress, M. A., De Decker, P., and Coles, G. P. 2004. “A Taxonomic And Distributional Survey Of Marine Benthonic Ostracoda Off Kerguelen And Heard Islands, South Indian Ocean”. Journal Of Micropalaeontology 23 (1): 15-38. doi:10.1144/jm.23.1.15.
    Abstract: From an examination of 34 grab and dredge samples ranging from 110 m to 3584 m water depth, collected during Eltanin cruise 47 across the Kerguelen Plateau, 26 shallow-water and 35 deep-sea benthonic ostracod species have been identified. Systematic notes and illustrations of the common and some of the rare species are presented. Two new species are described: Philoneptunus cassidyi n. sp. and Taracythere abyssora n. sp. Comparisons made with the Atlantic and SW Pacific Oceans and circum-Antarctic regions indicate that the fauna comprises dominantly cosmopolitan deep-sea species while most of the other species have close affinities with the SW Pacific. In the Kerguelen material, seven distinct depth assemblages appear to correspond well with differing watermasses and there is evidence that the relatively shallow position of Antarctic Intermediate Water permits elevation of the upper depth limits of some deep-sea species. Some species have developed ornament of fine reticulation, features not previously seen in those species outside the Kerguelen region.

Baird Helena Phoenix

  • Baird, Helena Phoenix, Miller, Karen Joy, and Stark, Jonathan Sean. 2012. “Genetic Population Structure In The Antarctic Benthos: Insights From The Widespread Amphipod, Orchomenella Franklini.”. Plos One 7 (3): e34363-e34363. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034363.
    Abstract: Currently there is very limited understanding of genetic population structure in the Antarctic benthos. We conducted one of the first studies of microsatellite variation in an Antarctic benthic invertebrate, using the ubiquitous amphipod Orchomenella franklini (Walker, 1903). Seven microsatellite loci were used to assess genetic structure on three spatial scales: sites (100 s of metres), locations (1-10 kilometres) and regions (1000 s of kilometres) sampled in East Antarctica at Casey and Davis stations. Considerable genetic diversity was revealed, which varied between the two regions and also between polluted and unpolluted sites. Genetic differentiation among all populations was highly significant (F(ST) = 0.086, R(ST) = 0.139, p<0.001) consistent with the brooding mode of development in O. franklini. Hierarchical AMOVA revealed that the majority of the genetic subdivision occurred across the largest geographical scale, with N(e)m≈1 suggesting insufficient gene flow to prevent independent evolution of the two regions, i.e., Casey and Davis are effectively isolated. Isolation by distance was detected at smaller scales and indicates that gene flow in O. franklini occurs primarily through stepping-stone dispersal. Three of the microsatellite loci showed signs of selection, providing evidence that localised adaptation may occur within the Antarctic benthos. These results provide insights into processes of speciation in Antarctic brooders, and will help inform the design of spatial management initiatives recently endorsed for the Antarctic benthos.
    Tags: Amphipoda, Amphipoda: genetics, Animals, Antarctic Regions, Genetic Speciation, Genetic Variation, Genetics, Microsatellite Repeats, Population.

Barboza Carlos Alberto de Moura

  • Barboza, Carlos Alberto de Moura, Moura, Rafael Bendayan, Lanna, Andre Monnerat, Oackes, Thayane, and Campos, Lúcia Siqueira. 2011. “Echinoderms As Clues To Antarcti-South America Connectivity”. Oecologia Australis 15 (01): 86-110. doi:10.4257/oeco.2011.1501.08.
    Abstract: table.MsoNormalTable { font-size: 10pt; font-family: "Arial","sans-serif"; } I solation and climate change has lead to an Antarctic marine biota rich in endemic taxa. But evidence exists for the occurrence of several shared marine species between the Southern Ocean and other basins. This manuscript reviews on the echinoderm taxa known from the Antarctic and South America, and evaluates some evidences for the connectivity between these continents. Metadata from several studies and data from the Brazilian continental margin were used for the analyses. A total of 602 echinoderm species have been recorded so far at both regions, 82 of those (~14 %) are shared between Antarctica and South America, and from these around 46 % are typically deep-sea ones. A high species richness was found at the Antarctica Peninsula, South Shetland Is. and South Georgia, possibly resultant from highest sampling effort at these regions. Distinct geological history and the tectonic activities play an important role in regulating the benthic faunal assemblage of these regions. A overlap was found between the echinoderm fauna from the South American cone, and mainly the regions around the Antarctic Peninsula. The echinoderm fauna from the Brazilian margin distinguished from those at the tip of the continent, although a few shared taxa occurred. A species assemblage turnover was identified from the Uruguayan margin. Also, the whole Magellanic region showed more affinities with the Argentinean Atlantic margin and the Falkland/Malvinas Is. than the southern Pacific Chilean margin. South Georgia, as transition between the South American and Antarctic regions, shared species with both continents. The considerably low ratio between the number of shared and total species records from the Antarctic regions revealed that most species are most likely endemic to the Southern Ocean. But future explorations of the South American and Antarctic deep sea margins and basins could reveal a higher number of shared echinoderm species than that reported here. All these comparisons should be backed up by taxonomic calibration and use of molecular tools in order to distinguish cryptic species and evaluate genetic populations’ structure, as these would lead to a better understanding of observed biogeographical patterns.

Barnard K.H.

Barnes D. K. A.

  • Barnes, D. K. A., Hodgson, D. A., Convey, P., Allen, C. S., and Clarke, A. 2006. “Incursion And Excursion Of Antarctic Biota: Past, Present And Future”. Global Ecology And Biogeography 15 (2): 121-142. doi:10.1111/j.1466-822X.2006.00216.x.
    Abstract: Aim To investigate the major paradigms of intense isolation and little anthropogenic influence around Antarctica and to examine the timings and scales of the modification of the southern polar biota. Location Antarctica and surrounding regions. Methods First, mechanisms of and evidence for long-term isolation are reviewed. These include continental drift, the development of a surrounding deep-water channel and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). They also include levels of endemism, richness and distinctiveness of assemblages. Secondly, evidence for past and modern opportunities for species transport are investigated. Comparative levels of alien establishments are also examined around the Southern Ocean. Discussion On a Cenozoic time-scale, it is clear that Gondwana's fragmentation led to increasing geographical isolation of Antarctica and the initiation of the ACC, which restricted biota exchange to low levels while still permitting some movement of biota. On a shorter Quaternary time-scale, the continental ice-sheet, influenced by solar (Milankovitch) cycles, has expanded and contracted periodically, covering and exposing terrestrial and continental shelf habitats. There were probably refugia for organisms during each glacial maxima. It is also likely that new taxa were introduced into Antarctica during cycles of ice sheet and oceanic front movement. The current situation (a glacial minimum) is not ‘normal’; full interglacials represent only 10% of the last 430 ka. On short (ecological) time-scales, many natural dispersal processes (airborne, oceanic eddy, rafting and hitch-hiking on migrants) enable the passage of biota to and from Antarctica. In recent years, humans have become influential both directly by transporting organisms and indirectly by increasing survival and establishment prospects via climate change. Main conclusions Patterns of endemism and alien establishment are very different across taxa, land and sea, and north vs. south of the Polar Frontal Zone. Establishment conditions, as much as transport, are important in limiting alien establishment. Three time-scales emerge as important in the modification of Antarctica's biota. The natural ‘interglacial’ process of reinvasion of Antarctica is being influenced strongly by humans.
    Tags: Alien species, Antarctica, dispersal, invasions, Southern Ocean, species transport.

Barnes David K. A.

  • Barnes, David K. A., and De Grave, Sammy. 2002. “Ecological Biogeography Of Southern Polar Encrusting Faunas”. Journal Of Biogeography 28 (3): 359-365. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.2001.00562.x.
    Abstract: Aim To investigate the affinities and similarities between coastal (marine) encrusting faunas along the Andes–Scotia Arc–Antarctic Peninsula mountain chain with a uniform sampling strategy. Location Twelve different samples sites were selected on the (southern) South American and (western) Antarctic continents. The sites spanned 25° of latitude along the Andes–Scotia Arc–Antarctic Peninsula mountain chain from Tierra del Fuego to the Ross Sea (Antarctica). Methods Encrusting faunal colonists were identified on rocky (boulder/cobble) surfaces constituting a total surface area of 2 m2 from each of twelve localities at depths from the intertidal zone to 12 m. Faunal suites of sites were subjected to differing but common modern analyses, Detrended Correspondance Analysis (DCA) and TWINSPAN. Results Typically the number of encrusting species increased with depth and decreased with isolation (remote islands, such as South Georgia and Bird Island had depauperate faunas). The proportion of the total fauna constituted by bryozoans, sponges and other taxa changed with site latitude and isolation. Ordination (DCA) of the site species data matrix revealed distinct Patagonian, Falkland and Antarctic groupings. Ordination of just the Antarctic grouping revealed a cline from the northerly and shallower sites to those more southerly and deep. TWINSPAN analysis of the same data set largely supported the ordination. Ordination at generic level showed a high degree of similarity with the species ordination pattern. Main conclusions The north/south, deep/shallow, cline found shows distinct faunistic patterning within biogeographic zones. The separation of sites within and outside the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) support more classically based historic biogeographic studies. The major difference between the findings of this study was the organization of sites into a cline vs. distinct zones. The simplest explanation for why studies yeild such different findings must lie with the considerable differences in the types of data sets used; historical records or (as here) short-term, uniform, sampling strategies.
    Tags: Antarctic biogeography, boulder fauna, bryozoans, cline, cnidarians, sponges.

  • Barnes, David K. A., and Kuklinski, Piotr. 2010. “Bryozoans Of The Weddell Sea Continental Shelf, Slope And Abyss: Did Marine Life Colonize The Antarctic Shelf From Deep Water, Outlying Islands Or In Situ Refugia Following Glaciations?”. Journal Of Biogeography 37 (9): 1648-1656. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02320.x.

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Les fonds des îles escales du Marion-Dufresne 2 étant presque totalement inconnus, PROTEKER profite des escales du navire pour, en fonction des conditions logistiques et météorologiques, avec l’autorisation du commandant et de l’OPA, pour effectuer des explorations en plongée ou au moyen d’un ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle).

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